The west remained local while not looking much into expanding economically while the Byzantine Empire became the wealthier empire in Europe because of its trade. The cause of this was Constantinople, the Byzantine capital which became the center of east-west trade. Constantinople was the major trading stop in Europe on the Silk Road, not only because of its geographical location but also because of its diverse population. Western and Eastern Europe were similar in their arts which primarily revolved around religion. Both represented religion through their arts which is commonly seen in building architecture, statues, stain glass and most commonly in churches.
X 28 ft. 10 ½ in. Duccio’s is made with tempera on panel while Leonardo da Vinci is oil and tempera on plaster. Duccio di Buoninsegna was one of the most influential Italian artists of his time. He was born in Siena, Tuscany and worked mostly with pigment and egg tempura. Most of his painting was of religious subject matters.
The Mediterranean region had political transformations that changed cultures in the periods 200 c.e to 1000 c.e. Most of these cultural changes happened through the empire of Rome which was then created into the Byzantine Empire. One change that happened was the development of feudalism which caused local leaders and their retinues begin to form a warrior class distinct from the people of their territory. Second, Religious practices drastically changed during this period due to the new ruling of Constantine. Third, Germanic tribes with their barbaric invasions weakened the Roman Empire which led to disappearance of Roman ways.
The Romans were especially successful in building an economically sound empire. As one would think, production is the first step in the process of making a profit. The Romans had a large variety of items that they produced. Examples include iron, lead, leather, marble, olive oil, perfumes, purple dye, silk, silver, spices, timber, tin and wine. They were able to produce most of these items due to their large range of labor, from slave farmers to wealthy merchants.
ABOUT THE ARCHIMEDES PALIMPSEST The Archimedes Palimpsest is a medieval parchment manuscript, now consisting of 174 parchment folios. While it contains no less than seven treatises by Archimedes, calling it the Archimedes Palimpsest is a little confusing. As it is now, the manuscript is a Byzantine prayerbook, written in Greek, and technically called a euchologion. This euchologion was completed by April 1229, and was probably made in Jerusalem. The prayer book, or Euchologion, is itself of some interest, and further information on its contents can be discovered in this website.
The Phoenicians were members an ancient culture located in the region of the modern Middle East. They were renowned for their aggressive pursuit of trade and colonization in the Mediterranean Sea region during the last three millennia B.C. They established important cities and colonies throughout the region, including Sidon, Tyre, Carthage, and Berot. After its establishment, Carthage became the most important city in the western Mediterranean. It was the chief site of commerce and served as an important link in the trail of colonies that Phoenicia had established.
Venetians painting was a very mature, using much detail type of style, showing not only what season of the year it was, but also the time of the day. Using oil paitings, Giovanni Bellini has created hundres of paintings during his life time, 300 of Bellini’s paintings are still around till this day. One of Giovanni Bellini’s most famous paintings was “ The Madonna and Child”. The painting represented the bond between a mother and her child. The painting was created in 1505 when Bellini was approximately seventy-five years old.
Parties also spent more time trying to outdo each other, and gain the most influence in the coalition than they did actually discussing how to help the country rebuild. One argument to suggest that the Treaty of Versailles was the most important factor in destabilising the German economy was that the treaty demanded that Germany pay $6.6billion in reparations. This was far
Britain’s strategic motives in Africa centred on thwarting the growth of rival European powers as well as securing its interests in Africa. However there was a clear symbiotic relationship between strategic and economic concerns, during the expansion period. One of the first incidents in Africa where this was made manifest was when Britain invaded Egypt in 1882. The Suez Canal was of major strategic importance as it allowed ships to access the empires ‘Jewel in the crown’ India faster, through the red sea instead on going around Africa, as well as faster transportation of Arab oil. The canal was also of economic significance as historian Simon Smith reminds us that ‘80% of the Suez traffic was British, and13% of Britain’s trade passed through the canal’ , this is due to most of Britain’s trade with India passing through the Suez.
The water also gave both empires access to trading with each other but the Persians had the Royal Road, a 1700 mile long trade route across the empire. The geographical location of both these empires eventually led them to their downfall as the Greeks were in the mountains and the Persians at the east of them. Although the Greeks were in a worse geographical location than the Persians, both of them were able to prosper. The differences of the political systems of these two empires are astonishing. The Greeks were a collection of around 1,500 city states as the Persians were under the rule of one king.