Trotsky wanted to help communists in other countries to the revolution and push forward the revolution in the USSR. He wanted to end the NEP and introduce more socialist ways of running the economy; Stalin however believed they could build a fully economic state by helping the people within the USSR and not from outsiders. Members of the communist party like the policies of Stalin better than those of Trotsky’s, because they didn’t trust Trotsky to lead them into a better USSR. What Stalin meant by ‘socialism in one country’ was that the nations first was to consolidate Lenin’s revolution and the rule of the CPSU by turning the USSR into a modern state capable of defending itself against enemies, a majority of Russia’s population agreed with this. Although Zinoviev and Kamenev attacked Stalin calling a vote of no confidence in him, the ending of the NEP and a
In 1928, Joseph Stalin, now leader of the USSR, knew that the agricultural sector had to be made more efficient in order for it to feed the huge workforce which would take Russia through industrialisation. In his ascent to power, Stalin criticised Lenin's New Economic Policy for its Capitalistic features and so, through the Gosplan, a centrally controlled economy was created which subsequently gave birth to the five-year-plans and Collectivisation. By removing the Kulaks (wealthy peasants), combining numerous small holdings into one large farm and introducing modern equipment, collective farms were established. There is no doubt that this was a much more Socialist policy than the NEP, but whether it was successful is highly debatable: it would entirely depend on the interpretation of the word 'success' which, for this essay at least, will be that it has benefitted the majority of the people it has affected. However, it would be all too easy for one's opinion to be based entirely on the increase in agricultural output after 1928.
One of the main aims of the communist regime was to industrialise the country, they wanted to change Russia from a ‘backward peasant-based country’ to a modern more industry based society. Stalin is quick to undertake this, and the five year plans are designed to break away from the New Economic Policy(NEP) and bring about rapid industrialisation. The five year plans were a set of plans to last for five years, set by the government. The first five year plan was based on heavy industry in a state-owned and directed economy, which resulted in private businesses and trade being swept away. This in itself suggests totalitarian control, the government established full control of the economy and business, it also fits in with communist plans, to industrialise the country.
How successful were Stalin’s economics policies from 1928-1941? In the late 1920’s Stalin succeeded in the power struggle. He wanted to speed up the economy; he wanted to bring about a complete economic revolution through collectivisation and industrialisation. To achieve this the Russian state would take over in order to run the economy. This was sometimes called ‘Revolution from above.
Therefore Liberals wanted constitutional reform and more power to be given to the Reichstag. Whereas socialists demanded social reform and power to the workers and trade unions. However conservatives, such as Bismarck wanted to conserve to the Junkers – the elite class. To do this he proposed the Anti-Socialist Law in 1879 and also passed the Tariff Law, which appeased the liberals. The years leading up to the war the German people were dreading it, there were protests in Berlin in July 1914.
These rights included; the chance to own land, marry, trade, were given a quarter of old land free and the option to build their own businesses. Previous to this manifesto serfs had little to no freedom as they were legally owned by land owners. This would have been seen as normal and necessary for Russian society. The step of emancipating serfdom would have been seen as radical and going against the Slavophile ways of life. This shows that Alexander was ready to liberate Russia because even though it was risky, it helped to start the liberalisation process because it enabled ex-serfs to work in factories which would help boost the economy, let the gentry to earn their own money and would help advances in industry which in turn help Russia to compete with the western world.
The transition from the old Russia to a truly communist state would require industrialization on a massive scale. According to Marxist theory, only through a modern industrialized economy could a true proletariat class be developed as Marx makes no mention of a peasant class. Marxist theory aside, the need to industrialize was also a pragmatic matter of self-defense. Stalin, either as a result of paranoia or a simple distrust of the capitalist West, assumed his country would have to fight for its survival. He presented the need to industrialize as a life or death struggle.
On the other hand, these two supreme leaders had ideological differences, which were used during the time, when they were in power. We can say that Lenin was more a political theorist and ideologue, and believed in socialism as the only way to save the working class from bourgeoisie usage, they wanted that there be only one equal class. However, Stalin presented his socialism not only as being pure as Lenin, but as also the only acceptable variant of socialism. His ideology served an ulterior purpose of reinforcing his legitimacy and authority . Furthermore, “A Short Course” (book written by Stalin) was not just purely ideological work but a political justification as its last chapter dealt with the liquidation of his opponents.
The workers of the world had to be “liberated” from bourgeois exploitation. As the principle communist nation of the world, Russia had a duty to spread the revolution begun in 1919 to the rest of Europe. The view of many Marxist scholars was that the proletariat had been brainwashed by the rich, and thus were not capable of instigating a workers’ revolution themselves – therefore Communism had to be introduced by force. Stalin realised that the Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe was a rare opportunity for Russia to act as this vanguard. Perhaps less importantly, though still a significant point in the domination of Eastern Europe, was the desire of Stalin to
During the 1920s, Stalin appointed key people to Communist Party posts. He was incapable of being satisfied for administrative works, thus his colleagues were content to let him handle the vast Communist Party paperwork, unaware that he was using this opportunity to cultivate loyal followers and place them in key position. After Lenin’s death, two conflicting political parties thoughts about the future of the Soviet Union arose in party debates. Left – wing communists believed that world revolution was essential to the survival of socialism in