Effects of Volume on Enzyme Activity Biology 103 Second Spring Semester Introduction Enzymes are biological catalysts that catalysis biochemical reactions in living calls. The purpose of a catalyst is to decrease the activation energy required for a reaction to happen naturally. Enzymes increase the reaction rate by molecules by two hundred million times faster opposed to if there no enzyme present. During a catalyzed reaction, a substrate binds to an active site which in-turn forms an enzyme-substrate complex. This is where the reactions occurs.
Internal Assessment To test how temperature affects the rate of enzyme activity in the liver? Name: Chandre Putter Grade: 11 Words: 2380 Design Section Research Question/Aim How does temperature affect the rate of enzyme activity in the liver? Introduction Enzymes are ‘globular proteins that work as catalysts’ (1), meaning they speed up chemical reactions (metabolic reactions) without having to be altered. Enzymes are made by living cells and also speed up biochemical reactions. Living creatures produce thousands of enzymes, and the reason for this is because; ‘most enzymes only catalyze one biochemical reaction’ (1), and many different enzymes are need to do this.
Enzymes are proteins that are used to speed up these reactions without being consumed by them. The activity of these enzymes can be altered by changing their environments, such as enzyme specificity (speed only a reaction that contains their substrate), increasing and decreasing temperature, concentration level, or adjusting the pH level. Catalase is a catalyst that digests potent hydrogen peroxide and converts it into H2O and O. It is due to this hydrogen peroxide digesting ability that we used catalase in this experiment. To record the role that environment plays in the reaction of an enzyme, we exposed the enzyme to various changes in temperature, concentration, and pH.
Enzyme has an active site in a specific shape because of its tertiary structure. Enzyme works for binding with substance of a specific shape that fits in it and break down the substance. Enzymes denature due to various factors. The temperature, PH level, and the concentration of the substance influence enzyme activities. When these factors vary, enzymes may change in shape so it will not be able to bond to the specific substance anymore.
Once these two components come together, certain chemical bonds within the substrate molecule change much as a lock is released, and just like the key in this illustration, the enzyme is free to execute its duty once again. Many chemical reactions do proceed but at such a slow rate that their progress would seem to be imperceptible at normally encountered environmental temperature. Consider for example, the oxidation of glucose or other sugars to useable energy by animals and plants. For a living organism to derive heat and other energy from sugar, the sugar must be oxidized (combined with oxygen) or metabolically "burned" However, in a living system, the oxidation of sugar must meet an additional condition; that oxidation of sugar must proceed essentially at normal body temperature. Obviously, sugar surrounded by sufficient oxygen would not oxidize very rapidly at this temperature.
As the Sephadex forms a network with tiny holes, this prevents molecules that are too large from getting inside. The buffer also helps the protein molecules that are too large to enter the gel to bypass the gel altogether by flushing them out. It is for this reason that the protein with the largest molecules will be eliminated first and the protein with the smallest molecules should be eliminated last as they are able to pass right through the gel. Therefore the smallest molecules are able to deeply penetrate the gel and remain in the column for longer while, as the size of the molecules increases, the molecules are less able to do so and are eliminated quicker. Experimentation Throughout the experiment great care was taken when handling all substances.
Certain factors affect the rate of reaction:- Temperature – temperature increase the rate of reaction because the molecules gain kinetic energy and this increases the likelihood of an enzyme and a substrate colliding, subsequently increasing the rate of reaction. If this temperature goes over the optimum temperature then the active site of the enzyme will become denatured. The bonds that hold the enzyme together will be broken causing it to lose its 3-D structure, and substrate will no longer be able to fit , so no more E/S complexes will be formed. PH – Like temperature enzymes have an optimum PH. If the PH goes over the optimum PH then the chemical nature of the amino acids can alter.
Catalase Lab Report Introduction Enzymes are proteins that speed up the rate of reactions that would otherwise happen more slowly. Enzymes work by fitting into certain substrates to lower the energy needed for the process to work. This is similar to the lock and key. The key being the substrate and the lock being the enzyme. If the substrate (key) doesn’t fit it won’t work with the enzyme (lock).
Effect of Enzyme Activity on Temperature Aim: The aim of this experiment is to investigate how effectively the enzyme amylase breaks down starch at different temperatures Research Question: How does the increase in temperature affect the time taken for amylase to breakdown 2ml of starch? Purpose: Background Information: Enzymes are biological catalysts that comprise the largest and most highly specialized class of protein molecules. Enzymes act as catalysts to increase the rates of chemical reactions. A fundamental property of enzymes is their specificity. Various enzymes have unique shape and chemical composition that creates a site, called and active site.
Catalase is an enzyme which is found in most living organisms. It catalyses the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into water and oxygen. 2H2O2 + Catalase >>> 2H2O + O2 Catalase dramatically reduces the activation energy needed for the reaction. Without catalase the decomposition would take much longer, and would not be fast enough to sustain human life. Hydrogen peroxide is also a dangerous, very potent by-product of metabolism, so it is essential that it is broken down quickly, otherwise it would cause damage to cells.