Explain the Structure of Enzymes and Discuss Their Role

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Explain the structure of enzymes and discuss their role in metabolic reactions. Enzymes are biological catalysts which increase metabolic reactions. There are thousands of enzymes within a human cell, all of which control different chemical reactions. Without enzymes controlling the rate of reaction, the temperature in our body would fall so low leading to potential fatal damage. It also would have effect on the amount of toxins that build up in our body; this would lead to a reduction to the supply of respiratory substrate. Enzymes are specific, meaning they can only catalyse one or sometimes two reactions. A protein called the active site uses the same arrangement of amino acids which causes the specific shape. It is the small part of the enzyme where the substrate binds and where catalysis occurs. The substrate finds a place to bind within the enzymes 3D shape. Once bound, the amino acids around the active site attach to the substrate molecule and hold it in position whilst the reaction takes place. Once the substrate has been chemically modified it becomes a product, and that product no longer binds to the enzyme, resulting in it falling out of the active site. (http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?um=1&hl=en&safe=off&tbo=d&biw=1366&bih=643&tbm=isch&tbnid=ciigLStnavaSlM:&imgrefurl=http://karimedalla.wordpress.com/2012/10/16/3-6-7-6-enzymes/&docid=ebMJKj77VQoaaM&imgurl=http://karimedalla.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/enzyme5.gif&w=600&h=295&ei=TSbLULT3FO210QXihYHICg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=349&sig=103114394625284372592&page=1&tbnh=141&tbnw=288&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:9,s:0,i:112&tx=110&ty=53) Proteins have three main levels of structure: Primary structure- This is the sequence of all the amino acids found in the enzyme which are linked together by peptide bonds.

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