Pavlov’s experiment involved putting meat powder in the mouths of dogs who had tubes inserted into various organs to measure bodily responses. He then discovered that the dogs began
“Outline and Evaluate the Learning Theory of Attachment” Learning Theory argues that attachment is learned rather than innate. There are three main types of attachment behaviours in Learning Theory, which are Classic Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Learning by Observation and Imitation (Social Learning Theory). Classical Conditioning was first notice by Pavlov, a Russian psychologist, when investigating the digestive system of dogs. He noticed they would salivate when their bowl came into the room, so introduced a stimulant, a bell, to indicate they would be getting their food. Soon the dogs began to associate the bell with their food, so would salivate when they heard the bell.
Assignment 1: Asses the 6 psychological perspectives Explain and assess all 6 of the psychological perspectives you have learnt. Behaviourist – Ivan Pavlov conducted an experiment called ‘Classical Conditioning’. At first, the Russian physiologist was working on an investigation of a dog’s digestive system, and the amount of salvation levels towards food. He had the dog in a harness, and a test tube under the dog’s mouth to collect the saliva. However, every time the dog saw the experimenter, the dog had already started to salivate before it came close to eating the food; this was unusual.
Thorndike concluded in his law of effect that a particular stimulus will lead to a response if that response brings satisfaction, and if there is no satisfaction the response will stop. B.F Skinner used similar techniques and created the "Skinner Box" which allowed a rat to press a lever to release a pellet of food. The rat eventually learned through reinforcement that pressing the lever provided food. Reinforcement can be either positive or negative: positive reinforcement occurs when the consequences after a shown behaviour are desirable and negative is when the behaviour exhibited results in an unpleasant experience. Classical conditioning is the automatic response to a previously unrelated stimulus.
Social learning theory (SLT) suggests that behaviour is learnt through observation and imitation of “models”. SLT explains gender role by saying children learn their gender role primarily through vicarious reinforcement. Children are positively reinforced for behaving in gender-appropriate ways (i.e. a girl playing with a doll) and are punished for behaving in gender-inappropriate ways (i.e. a boy playing with a doll).
Magazine Training Ryan Smith University of LaVerne 04/25/2014 Abstract Magazine training is the training required for the animal in an experiment to become familiar with the mechanism which delivers the reinforcer in operant conditioning. In this experiment, Sniffy is trained to associate the sound of the magazine (the food delivery device) with the actual food. This will help Sniffy to associate between the sound of the food pellet-dispensing mechanism and the fact that a pellet of food is available. Introduction Operant conditioning is run by a series of rewards, punishments, and reinforcements; both positive and negative. What is used to train Sniffy is positive reinforcements.
Soon she knows that the rats recognized her husband, and that they all used to be animals of laboratory together. The rats have the same opinion to support Mrs. Frisby and a companionship begins. But then, the farmer determines to call an exterminator (Charlotte, 1998). At the moment, what will they do? This is not only a book about mice, rats, and life on a farm, but Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH also discovers the ideas of companionship, devotion, overcoming difficulty, and fearlessness.
He studied the behaviour of dogs using a machine installed in a special room as shown in the picture below. Pavlov asked an assistant to enter the room with a bowl of dog food. He noticed that the dog started to saliva before it had even touched the food. Saliva is a reflexive response which is a reaction that comes naturally. After the dog was used to the routine of the assistant entering the room with food, Pavlov asked the assistant to enter without food.
Once the rat has learned this behavior, we might withhold reinforcement until the rat moves towards the bar. Later we might reward it only for sniffing the bar or touching it with its nose or paw. By reinforcing successive approximations to the desired behavior we gradually shape the bar pressing response without waiting passively for the response to occur on its own. In conclusion B. F. Skinner was a great contributor to the
First attachments are usually formed with the primary caregiver; the one who changes their nappies, feeds them and comforts them. The learning theory was first proposed by Dollard and Miller. Skinner placed hungry animals in cages (Skinner boxes) and observed them exploring their environment, the animals eventually accidentally pressed