Pavlov’s experiment involved putting meat powder in the mouths of dogs who had tubes inserted into various organs to measure bodily responses. He then discovered that the dogs began
The theory of classical conditioning was introduced near the turn of the nineteenth century (1900) by Russian scientist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. Pavlov’s experiment was originally intended to study the physiology of salivation, however it turned out that his experiments led him to the discovery of conditioned reflexes. Pavlov’s experiments involved measuring stomach secretions in dogs as they were introduced to food, meat, meat powder, etc. As Pavlov progressed through his experiments he noticed that the dogs had began to salivate upon seeing the food. Then Pavlov began to notice that the dogs began to salivate when he saw an empty plate, or when he saw the experimenter; the dogs even salivated at the sound of the foot steps from the experimenter as they were about to enter the room.
The behaviourist perspective believes that our behaviour is the result of operant or classical conditioning; both of these explain behaviour as being a direct result of learning. Classical conditioning was developed by Ivan Pavlov. He conducted an experiment that involved dogs. Because dogs salivate, this is an involuntary reflexive response to the sight of smell of food. Pavlov set up an experiment where he introduced a bell at meal times; this was the neutral stimulus (NS).
Assignment 1: Asses the 6 psychological perspectives Explain and assess all 6 of the psychological perspectives you have learnt. Behaviourist – Ivan Pavlov conducted an experiment called ‘Classical Conditioning’. At first, the Russian physiologist was working on an investigation of a dog’s digestive system, and the amount of salvation levels towards food. He had the dog in a harness, and a test tube under the dog’s mouth to collect the saliva. However, every time the dog saw the experimenter, the dog had already started to salivate before it came close to eating the food; this was unusual.
His research involved the use of dogs as the subject to study the role of salvation on digestion. He would come present various types of food or in some cases non food into the dogs’ mouth and observe the amount of saliva that would come to the dogs’ mouth. He used a tube that was incision into the dogs’ cheek. This was done to collect and measure the amount of saliva the dog then produced. While doing this experiment he was able to learn many things.
For instance, psychologists try to explain results by using well-accepted theories instead of elaborate new hypotheses. Parsimony prevents psychologists from inventing and pursuing outlandish theories. In the book on page 15 figure 1.3 it shows a direct and an indirect way to relate an independent variable, hours of deprivation, to a dependent variable, rate of bar pressing. The dependent variable is obtained by placing a rat into a small chamber where it can press a bar to obtain drinking water. The experimenter observes the rate (how many presses per minute) at which the rat presses the bar to get water.
This reveals the dogs mind is remembering the past association with the bell and the food. Classical conditioning is reflexive, automatic behaviour, where the stimulus comes before. A common occurrence of classical conditioning in human behaviour would be the study and treatment of phobias many individuals would have, persistent fears or anxieties of an object or situation.
Generally dogs in response to a bowl of food salivated however they wanted to see if they could pair this with a bell ringing. So every time they dogs received their food the bell rang and in the end when the bell rang the dogs salivated because they already associated the bell ring with their food. Operant conditioning however is the course of altering behaviour by receiving rewards and punishments. In this experiment they made a cat learn that every time it gets out of the box that it was placed in got a reward. This means it learnt doing the same escape routine because it knew the consequences were rewarding.
Unit 8 P1 :Explain the principal psychological perspectives INVAN PALOV – CLASSICAL CONDITIONING [pic] Key words :Stumulus ← Classical conditioning is a automicatic type of learning in which a stimulus would gain the ability to remind a response that was originally called by another stimulus . ← Creator and Key Constitutors First described by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Russian physiologist in 1903 and studied in infants by John B. Watson (1878-1958) : Behavior is learnt through seeing what someone else does. This can be explained further through the experiment of classical conditioning. Classical conditioning was developed by Invan Pavlov . Pavlov used the experiment of dogs and food as to measure the levels of salivation that a dog .
While taking accurate measurements from the dog about how much it was salivating; Pavlov noticed that the dog would salivate at the sight of food as well as tasting it. Due to this; he carried out an experiment which sought to discover whether he could connect the dogs response to food to a neutral stimulus. To do this Pavlov presented the dog with a neutral stimulus, in this case a bell which Pavlov rung and to which the dog did not salivate to; he then presented the dog with both the ringing bell and a bowl of food, the unconditioned stimulus, this is repeated until the dog connects the ringing