One was covered with sponge and a soft terry cloth material and the other was covered with by wire mesh for clinging on to. Both surrogate mothers had a light inserted for warmth and a feeding bottle. Harlow separated two groups of monkeys from their mothers and they were placed with the surrogate mothers. It was clear by the results of this study that although the monkeys would go to the wire mother for food, once fed they would return to the terry clothe mother. Harry Harlow and Mary Ainsworth experiment is simular because they both done an experiment on understanding attachment.
Of course, back at the farm the unlucky ones would still be suffering. The mother of that kitten would still be imprisoned in some tiny cage, already given birth to her next litter. And perhaps there were actually a few more of those cute little puppies originally, but they were kept as well, just to keep the breeding program going, doomed to a lifetime of enslavement and captivity. The thing is, when you go to a pet shop and ask about their animals, none of this is explained to you. They’ll be labelled as pure-bred, pedigree animals from supposedly “registered” breeders, and usually the customer is completely oblivious to their pet’s sinister background.
Outline and evaluate the learning theory as an explanation of attachment. According to learning theories, attachment like all behaviours is stimulated by the environment. Based on the behavioural explanations of classical conditioning and apparent conditioning, attachment is a consequence of reward and association. Classical conditioning is associating the mother with food. This conditioning is how attachments form between the mother and the source of pleasure according to the learning theory.
There are various explanations for attachment, but one of the most used by behaviourists is the Learning Theory. This theory suggests that attachment is formed through either classical, which involves learning through association i.e. ; an unconditioned stimulus as food can produce pleasure meaning the person who feeds the infant, most likely the caregiver is associated pleasure thus forming an attachment or operant conditioning which is learning through rewards or punishment. The Learning Theory attempt to explain attachment, which is referred sometimes to the cupboard love theory, as this theory proposes that the infant only becomes attached in this instance because he or she is fed and the infant becomes attached to the person who feeds him or her. However, the operant conditioning side was used by Dollard and Miller in 1951, which they claimed was more complex as the infant feels uncomfortable when they are hungry and their primary caregiver reduces that discomfort whilst pleasuring them hence them becoming attached.
However, the mother is there each time the baby is fed. Subsequently, Classical conditioning is learning through association. Firstly the food is the un-conditioned stimulus which the baby feels pleasure from so this is the un-conditioned response. Then, the mother is the neutral stimulus however, for the baby so after time the mother becomes a conditioned stimulus as the baby associates the mother with food and this is the conditioned response. The baby associates the mother with food.
He placed a drumming toy into the cage to see how the monkeys would react when they were frightened. He found that all the monkeys ran to the cloth monkey even the ones that had been fed by the wire monkey. He also noticed that when they were put into the cage after being frightened they were delinquent and showed signs of anti social behaviour. They were also unable to form normal relationships. Therefore he concluded that the monkeys in the cage suffered emotionally and so resulted in delinquency, but also the monkeys had an innate need for comfort.
In a desperate effort to communicate with humans, the Bonobo chimpanzee, Kanzi, after losing his mother, began to point at symbols on a keyboard to ask for different things. Eventually Kanzi was able to associate these symbols with the spoken word. He didn’t necessarily have to be taught by being shown where to point or be rewarded with food. Kanzi was able to learn and associate different symbols with different words and meanings just so he could communicate with his human keepers. In one experiment, Kanzi’s keeping sat in a room with him and told him, without pointing to symbols, to do things that were impractical, such as putting pine needles in the refrigerator and pouring Perrier water into a jar of jelly.
Ellen Satter’s “How to Feed Children” Analysis There are multiple habits and strategies when feeding your child. The methods drastically change as the child gradually develops and matures. Satter lists steps that help direct an unaided or unsure parent toward the correct habits of eating behaviors at ages ranging from newborn to adolescent. Feeding a newborn can not only be rewarding but also challenging. Satter believes that the best method for newborns is “feeding her the way she wants to be.” One must pay close attention to her cues of crying or behavior.
Do you think we are caring for this animal as God would have us care for them? I think there are people who take great care in looking after Monkey’s, the people who work in the Zoo’s and the people who are trying to protect the Monkey’s in the forest. But there are always people who try and take advantage of these creatures for there own gain, and mostly that is for money. So probally on a hole I think that God would like us to take more care with the Monkeys. Bibliograhy
Spelling, references, abbreviations TMA03 Option two: How has Bowlby’s Formulation of attachment theory been modified in the light of subsequent research? Attachment is a deep and emotional bond connecting one person to another (Lamb, Lewis and Oates, 2005). Attachments form as security to child in times of distress and upset. They are not just to satisfy basic needs of survival. This essay will explore how work by Bowlby has been modified in terms of how it has been developed in light of later research.