Unit 8- Psychological Perspective in Health and Social Care

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Unit 8- Psychological for Health and Social Care P1- Explain the principal psychological perspectives In this assignment I am going to explain the principal psychological perspectives Behaviourist Theory What is the behaviourist theory? Behaviourism is a worldwide view that assumes that a learner response to environmental stimuli. The learner starts of as a clean slate (tabula rasa) and behaviour is shaped through positive and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement indicates the implantation of a stimulus, negative reinforcement indicates the withholding of a stimulus. Who was the theorist? B.F. Skinner and Ivan Pavlov were the theorists who developed the behaviourist theories What is Operant Conditioning? Operant conditioning is the changing ones behaviour by the use of reinforcement which is given after a desired response. What was the study that links with operant conditioning? Skinner studied operant conditioning by conducting experiments using animals which he placed in a “Skinner Box” which was similar to Thorndike’s puzzle box. What is Classical Conditioning? Classical conditioning is the way we develop responses to certain stimuli that are not naturally occurring, e.g. when we touch a hot stove our reflex is to pull our hand back. It does so instinctively and no learning is involved, it is merely a survival instinct. However some people after getting burned pull their hands back even when the stove is not turned on. Pavlov discovered that we make associations which causes use to generalise our responses from one stimuli onto a neutral stimuli it is paired with, therefore the stove is not safe. What was the study that links with classical conditioning? Pavlov’s experiment involved putting meat powder in the mouths of dogs who had tubes inserted into various organs to measure bodily responses. He then discovered that the dogs began
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