Deviations in Intelligence Quotients

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Positive and negative deviations in intelligence quotients: results from a comparison of 13 and 17 year old students. This study will contribute to current literature on intelligence by comparing the mean average intelligence quotients (IQ) of thirteen and seventeen year old school children. The term Intelligence may have originated in the “late Middle English: via Old French from Latin intelligentia, from intelligere 'understand'” (Oxford dictionary, n.d.). Intelligence can be broadly defined as “a very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience” (Gottfredson, 1997, p. 13). A plethora of definitions exist for the term intelligence. IQ is a standardised measure of human intellectual capacity with broad societal implications. Intelligence is significant to Psychologists having been studied since the 19th century, resulting in Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon designing the first intelligence test in 1904 (Wasserman, & Tulsky, 2005). Deary, Weiss, and Batty, (2010) describe intelligence as a hierarchical design that includes g at the pinnacle, then strongly correlated broad domains of cognitive functioning followed by specific abilities. An eclectic mixture of intelligence theories exists, including Gardener’s theory of multiple intelligences, Thurstone’s theory of primary mental abilities, Sternberg’s Triarchic theory of intelligence and Spearman’s theory of g (Fletcher & Hattie, 2011, Gottfredson, 2003). The emergent field of cognitive epidemiology studies intelligence effects on health outcomes. The implications are significant. The relationship between the decline in cognitive ability and the increase in conditions such as dementia are noted, both for the individual and the broader community. Early intervention in

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