He was an empiricist. This means that he believed that we learn everything through our experience, with the aid of our senses. He was also a materialist, which means that he did not believe that body and soul could be separate. Due to these believes Aristotle rejected Plato’s theory about the world of forms. He was the first scientist that observed the physical world.
Secondly, Aquinas concludes that common sense observation tells us that no object can create itself. In other words, some previous object creates it, but there cannot be an endless string of objects causing other objects to exist. Aquinas believes that ultimately there must have been an uncaused first cause that begins the chain of existence for all things. I quite assent to the idea that there must have a first unmoved mover to put the universe into motion. As we all know, everything has a beginning and an end, so as to the universe.
Chuang Tzu believed that how we perceive things are directly related to each of our separate pasts, or our “paths”. Also, that we need to realized that our conclusions and dispositions would be completely different had we experienced another past, even possibly just one single instance. Confucius believed that all things are naturally good. It is only if you haven’t pursued the way that you can turn out evil. He also believed that the most important characteristic of our personalities is created by how we treat others.
In section 2, I will discuss why if our actions are casually determined, then we don’t have free will. 1: Vargas View First of all, in order to understand the whole reading, Vargas defines what free will is. It is the power of acting without the constraint of necessity or fate, which means that it is the power of an individual to decide or have his or her opinion on something. In the beginning of the reading, according to Vargas, many people including scientists have difficulties understanding free will. In fact, it is really hard for them to explain why “our current notion of free will is an
Discuss methodological issues in the study of psychokinesis (4 marks + 6 marks) There are many methodological issues with research into psychokinesis, one being that it’s highly fraudulent. Many times which individuals who claim to be able to do psychokinesis tend to not be able to show their ‘powers’ when put in controlled settings. The existence of macro-PK should be able to be easily demonstrated under controlled conditions however, till this date, no compelling evidence has been produced and hence a great focus is put on micro-PK, frankly because it can easily be shown through trickery. An example of fraud in psychokinesis is Uri Geller, who was the most well-known person for psychokinesis abilities and claimed to have powers that he used to bend spoons, stop clocks, be telepathic etc. Gellar, however, would never be able to reproduce his powers when asked to perform on the spot.
‘’Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end and never merely as a means to an end’’. The third imperative says that we as humans should all live moral lives; we cannot depend on anyone or anything else. "Therefore, every rational being must so act as if he were through his maxim always a legislating member in the universal kingdom of ends." An important strength of Kant’s ethical system is that Kant does not specifically set any deontological rules. Kant talks about the Summon Bonum, ‘’the real object of our will’’, he says that we cannot achieve this without our own morality entering into the equation for making decisions.
Science has cognitive power, it can allow us to explain, predict and control the world. The first argument made about science and ideology as belief systems came from Karl Popper. Popper believed that science is an “open belief system” in which scientist’s theories are criticised and are open to testing by other scientists. He further states science is regulated by the principle of falsificationsim. This principle declares that in order for a hypothesis to be scientific, a basic requirement is that it is falsifiable.
Speech according to him is the transition of the mental to the verbal; he puts words to the superior position claiming that there is no possibility of science without words and perceptions thus neglecting empirical methods. Also we have desires and aversions, and those things that contradict our desires or aversion are seen as evil opposite – good. Further the power is defined as an instrument to get the desired object or to put another way to fulfill the appetite, one’s power may collide with another one’s that is what hold people from using it and it is called fear, not to use power because of fear is called manners. There are two types of power – one acquired from the moment of birth another through the experience. The state of nature is the war of all against all since not regarding that some maybe stronger than others everyone has capacity to kill, but people also have the Natural Rights like The Right for life – clash of these two takes place.
Discuss the first cause argument. Draw on scientific research on the ultimate cause of things in the universe Before discussing the first cause argument between the religious world and the scientific world, one should accept the following principle- the law of cause and effect. According to Aristotle, all movement depends on a mover, every movement behind must have a chain of events that brought about the movement we see in the present. Everything happens is caused by something and causing something else. This saying has been proved by Quantum Physics and the law of conservation of energy with scientific experiments and become a universal law.
Danqing Han PHIL 101 Colin Mclear December 12, 2014 Assignment (Topic 2) The difference between Qualia and physical knowledge Knowledge Argument is a negative point of view about physcalism. Since physcalism always focuses on the theory that everything exists in the world must be a physical fact. And we don’t mind if it happens in the past, present, or future, because with time going material remains the same and can be explained by physical knowledge naturally. All in all, from the perspective of materialists, the origin of the world is material. And material consists of physical property, chemic property, and biologic property.