Personality and moral self explain how and why human beings make free choices. The libertarianism theory has been explained by CA Campbell, who said that human beings see themselves as free agents and therefore accept moral responsibility for their actions. Humans must accept responsibility for these actions and face any consequences that may come their way. John Stuart Mill - an influencal figure in Liberatarianism – believe we are free and morally responsible for all our actions. Mill believed it was extremely important that an indivduals free will should not be crushed by society.
Immanuel Kant puts forward an argument from deontological ethics and therefore is an ethical theory considered solely on duty and obligations, where one has an unchanging moral obligation to abide by a set of defined principles. Thus the ends of any action do not justify the means, i.e. if someone were to do their moral duties, then it would not matter if it had negative consequences. Thus, rules come above all else according to Kant. Kant argues that only one fact is undisputable, and that simply is that there is a moral law in existence, which then leads to the existence of God.
Aquinas considered that by using our reason to reflect on our human nature we could discover our specific end purpose. Aquinas used the ideas of Aristotle and the Stoics as an underpinning for Natural Law saying- human beings have an essential rational nature given by God in order for us to live and flourish. Aristotle said even without knowledge of god, reason can discover the laws that lead to human flourishing. The Stoics said Natural Laws are universal and unchangeable and should be used to judge of particular societies. We use this is help us choose the right moral action is situations.
However determinism take an opposite view to this; hard determinism is the theory that everything in the universe, including all human actions and choices has a cause which proceeds it. So whatever we do, we could never have done otherwise, whether we feel we have a choice or not. Soft determinism, on the other hand is a view that although the main events and decisions in our lives are determined, we can choose our own path as autonomous individuals to get there. Hard determinists would agree that ethical statements are merely the result of social conditioning as they believe that everything is determined by a cause. In this case, the cause would be social conditioning – Baroch Spinoza said that although we may think that we are free, we are not, we are merely aware of our actions.
This further reinforces that we have no choice or influence on our lives and the events that happen, so therefore God will know the ethical decisions we will make as he has already predestined them in our lives. Hard determinism is the teaching that denies humanity has free will and believes that all actions have a prior cause. It removes moral responsibility for our actions. Hard determinists would therefore agree with the statement above, and will believe that God does infact know what ethical decisions we will make as he has already perceived it. This idea links to predestination in the fact that it believes everything in the universe- even human action- has a cause which precedes it.
Explain, with examples, Kant’s theory of the Categorical Imperative. The German philosopher, Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), based his ethical theory on the idea that there is an objective right and wrong based on reason. While looking for some sort of objective basis for morality, Kant made the distinction between two kinds of imperatives; non-moral (hypothetical) and moral (categorical). The hypothetical imperative is an action which achieves a goal or result. For Kant, if an action is performed, based on the end goal or result, or based on the outcome, it is not moral.
Identify the weaknesses of the Hobbesian and Lockean justifications for obedience, and explain them. Political obligation is the obligation to obey the law because it is the law. Philosophers have argued that free and equal people do not have an obligation to obey an authority unless they have consented to do so. Thus political obligation must be based on consent. The most obvious weakness of both the Hobbesian and Lockean justifications for obedience is that we have never explicitly consented to be ruled by a state and obey its laws.
This theory is known as Determinism, the idea that all choices are made without freedom due to necessity and desire and is viewed as simply obeying the laws of nature. The Basic Argument for Determinism states three premises and two conclusions. The first premise is that if a person cannot make choices other then choices they will make they cannot choose freely, this is known as the Principle of Alternative Possibilities. The second premise is if determinism is true than a person can't make choices other than the choices they have made. One theory to explain this particular part is known as the Law of Nature and Desires, according to which once a desire has reached a certain level of intensity its objective must be met.
If determinism is true, then we don’t have free will. Discuss. It can be argued that if determinism is true, then we do not have free will. However, this argument really depends on which stream of determinism is being referred to. The argument that supports this idea the most is the fatalism argument - the idea that everything is predetermined before we are born and our actions do not affect this.
The wise Immanuel Kant in his quote said that humans should be treated as an “end in itself.” One might read this and wonder exactly what Kant try’s to portray in these words. One will never Frist r truly get what he was trying to convey in his thesis. It is important to note first that the term ends is in reference to ends and means. This is important because we must understand the context of what Kant t meant by “end in itself.” Ends refer to people or much better a rational person that is capable of judiciously thinking in the progress of their wellbeing. This said the term “means” is in reference to things, “things” such as objects.