* Mother leaves the room and reappears after a short absence. * A Stranger enters the room and talks to mother. * The mother then leaves the child with the stranger. Ainsworth discovered 3 distinct attachment types : secure attachment (infants with a happy relationship with caregiver, comfortable with social interactions and greet the caregiver cheerily on their return), insecure-avoidant attachment (infants who avoid all social interaction, showing no
Describe and evaluate research into cross cultural variations in attachment In 1988, Van Ljzendoorn and Kroonenberg used an analysis of the Strange Situation to research cross-cultural patterns of attachment. They used the same procedure as Ainsworth of assessing attachment as it shows how not all infants are securely attached. They therefore found the same three types of attachment: Secure attachment, insecure resistant and insecure avoidant. One of the most significant findings was that there was a 1.5 x more varaiations with cultures then between cultures. Also they found that secure attachment was the normal attachment throughout each country.
Various approaches could have been used to compensate for the lack of personal privacy and informed consent but were not. Due to the sensitive nature of this study and the violation of many commonly accepted guidelines for research, this experiment shows to be unethical.
The results showed informational conformity. The participants who individually made an estimate like 6 inches made smaller judgment and vice versa. Sherif’s experiment lacks external validity because the experiment is quite artificial as well as the task given to the participants. Internal validity is high because the experiment was well controlled. The experiment is unethical because the participants were not informed of real purpose.
Many people fear that these theories will make excuses for criminal acts and divorce. The nurture side of the argument has best been supported by studies of infant and child temperaments. John Watson showed how he could create a phobia in a young child with the Baby Alfred experiments and new studies are showing that a sense of humor is influenced by the environment rather than pre-determined by genes. To this day, one can be put at ease because genes may provide a template of who one becomes but cannot determine everything (Powell, 2009). Although both biology and the environment affect one’s behavior, the role the environment plays is more significant due to the lack of biological make-up in humans.
Causal Factors of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders In the area of emotional and behavior disorders (EBD) the number of students diagnosed is very few; it is an underrepresented category in eligibility for special education (Yell, Meadows, Drasgow, & Shiner, 2014). The reason for low diagnosis may be because parents or family members think the behavior is only a phase not a lifetime condition. Some of the behaviors that develop with EBD may seem similar to different stages of growth and development. The cause for developing EBD is not due to any one factor but many factors may have potential cause. Some causal factors of EBD include biological, family, school and culture factors (GCU, 2010).
Similar to other progressive education movements, both Froebel and Montessori wanted to provide “real-life situations in which children can formulate and test their own hypothesis in solving problems” (p. 276). Despite their similarities, the two methods had some major differences in the way they approached the educational setting and how to teach children. For example, while both Froebelian and Montessori theories agreed that there should be a structure, Froebelians considered the Montessori method too structured and rigid because it restricted the child’s freedom to experiment (Gutek, p. 273). Froebelians also criticized the Montessori method for not encouraging enough socialization between the students (p. 275). Conversely, the Montessori camp believed that the Froebelian method over sentimentalized education in young children and relied too heavily on myths, fables and stories.
1) Describe one way in which Milgrams research is unethical. Milgram did not obtain informed consent from his participants and deceived them. Milgrams participants did not know the true purpose of the experiment as they thought the study was investigating punishment on learning rather than obedience. They therefore could not give informed consent. This is a limitation because it raises ethical concerns and would not be acceptable under the current BPS (British Psychological Society) guidelines for conducting research.
The Disciplining of Infants Marie Cross BSHS/342 November 19, 2011 Linda Branch, Ph. D. The Disciplining of Infants There are opposing schools of thought on the benefits of disciplining infants. Some experts and parents believe that infants cannot comprehend discipline or right from wrong. The other side believes that infants are clever and know how to test the limitations of their environments. It is a fact that infants do need structure and protection; however, doctors, parents, and other experts of child psychology differ in opinion about the effectiveness of positive discipline and negative discipline when applied to infants.
Sometimes the effects of divorce can be short or long term consequences. The first age group to be discussed is infants. Not too much is known on the affects of divorce for children under the age of three. Some have speculated that children under the age of three do not always suffer from their parents’ divorce. Thus, sociologists and psychologist agreed that problems in personality can develop if the child had a strong bond with each parent, and those bonds are broken due to the divorce.