Describe and Evaluate Research Into Cross Cultural Variations in Attachment

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Describe and evaluate research into cross cultural variations in attachment In 1988, Van Ljzendoorn and Kroonenberg used an analysis of the Strange Situation to research cross-cultural patterns of attachment. They used the same procedure as Ainsworth of assessing attachment as it shows how not all infants are securely attached. They therefore found the same three types of attachment: Secure attachment, insecure resistant and insecure avoidant. One of the most significant findings was that there was a 1.5 x more varaiations with cultures then between cultures. Also they found that secure attachment was the normal attachment throughout each country. Certain places, such had Germany had a higher percentage of insecure avoidant than other countries. Van Lizendoorn and Kroonenberg also found that some countries such as Japan had a high percentage of insecure attachment. Another research into cross cultural variations was by Tronick et el. This study was on an African tribe in Zaire. In this tribe, infants are breast fed by many different women. Despite diffrences in rearing techniques infants still have a primary attachment figure. In some cultures, it was believed that the feeder was the primary attachment figure and this study showed that it isn’t true. The aim of Takahashiâs controlled observation was to see if the strange situation, was appropriate to use for Japanese infants and whether it was a true reflection of their attachment. It tested whether the strange situation was universal to cultures or just to the culture it was developed in (American, white, middle class). Takahashi took 60 infants from middle class backgrounds in Japan. They were all one year of age and had been raised at home. Takahashi found that 68% of infants were securely attached however 32% were insecure resistant. This was much higher than the American average. The Japanese

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