The variation within cultures was seen as 1.5 times greater than the variation between cultures. This can therefore confirm through the mass similarities into types of attachment which are most common that our attachment is in an innate and biological proccess. Ainsworth (1967) observed various universals in attachment behaviours in Uganda. She showed that mothers who were more sensitive to the needs of their children tended to have securely attached infants. She compared these results to her study in Baltimore (1971) where she found the same behaviour exhibited by mothers in the urban setting of Baltimore.
Outline and evaluate research findings into cross cultural studies of attachment If attachment is an innate behaviour we would expect attachment behaviours to be very similar across the world. Infant attachment styles in various cultures have been studied using the strange situation test. There are differences and similarities in attachment types between cultures. German infants showed a different pattern of attachment than the other groups. Only 40% of them were securely attached, 49% of them were anxious and avoidant, and the remaining 11% were anxious and resistant.
Outline and Evaluate Cultural Variations of Attachment Researchers have used the strange situation to investigate secure and insecure attachment in different cultures. A meta-analysis by Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg of 32 studies carried out in eight countries found some evidence of cultural differences (74% of Swedish infants were securely attached compared to just 50% of Chinese infants). Despite the observed differences between cultures, the researchers also found considerable consistency in patterns of secure and insecure attachment across the different cultures. Which suggests that it is likely that the same caregiver’s interactions have contributed to these patterns of secure and insecure attachment in different cultures. The problem with Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg’s study is that it was from a western perspective, so whats considered normal to a western culture isn’t the same as what an eastern culture would see as normal.
Although cubes of different sizes and larger distances were used to test the babies, a relatively little sucking was produced by them, which suggests the hypothesis that infants may have prior knowledge of depth and size constancy. A few decades later, Yonas and Owsley (1987) also observed depth perception in 3 months old by introducing a film of an object that was approaching towards them. The infants showed fear reactions such as blinking and twitching
The final stage is specific attachment between the ages of 7-11 months where a strong attachment is made to one individual and good attachments to others often follow. They supported this theory of attachment in 1964 in a longitudinal large-scale study. It followed 60 infants in the working class area of Glasgow over a period of 2 years. The study measured attachment in two ways; separation protest in seven everyday situations and stranger anxiety; where the researcher approached the infant and noted when the infant whimpered. The findings showed that half the children showed at first, specific attachment between 25 – 35 weeks.
Outline (AO1) Van Izjendoorn and Kroonenberg (1998) carried out a meta-analysis of this findings from 32 studies of attachment behaviour, adding to 2000 strange situations in 8 different countries. They found that variation of attachment types was Salk between countries and that secure attachment was the most common classification. Insecure avoidant was generally the next most common, apart from in Israel and Japan where insecure resistant was the most popular. They also found that variation within the cultures was 1.4 times greater than the variation between cultures. Therefore, the conclusions of their study was that most infants are similar to the USA, where secure attachment was the most common type.
The population in MEDC’s is high but not growing. This is because they do not have a high birth rate, and their death rate has fallen below the birth rate. An example of this is shown in countries like the UK or USA. Both countries have a very low national increase (UK has a national increase of 4 per 1000). The UK has a total birth rate of 13 per 1000 and the USA has a total birth rate of 14 per 1000.
For example, from the moment infants are born, they begin gathering information on face. Studies showed that within just a few exposures, newborns become so familiar with their mother’s face that they prefer it to a stranger’s. In this article, the author describes the opinions of several researchers including Russell Bauer, Paul Quinn and Jim Tanaka. Quinn came to know that in the last five to ten years infants responded to the social attributes of faces. Paul also reported that infants just a few months old prefer silhouettes of human heads to those of animals (59).
This may conclude that males would ace motor skills while females excel analytical and intuitive thinking. Nature of Female Brains According to “How Male and Female Brains Differ”, disparities within the brain can be found even when a child is still inside the womb (26 weeks in pregnancy). In the female brain, researchers found, using imaging technology, when tested with sound waves only the left hemisphere was active within the male brain, but in the female brain both hemispheres were active. In result, females may display stronger language and motor skill over males. The production of estrogen also affects
The main reason for this study was because the authors were interested in seeing if there was a link between child behavioral problems such as, hyperactivity and inattention, and playing video games or if other factors played a bigger role in child behavioral problems. The researchers gathered 788 parents of preschool children between the ages of two and five; while also, gathering 391 parents of children between the ages of six and eight and separated them into four different groups. Low risk preschoolers, high risk preschools, low risk school-age children, high risk school-age children, these groups were determined by cumulating the risk and parenting styles of each of the children and concluded that factors such as home environment, quality of parent-child relationship, played a bigger role in a child’s behavior problems than video games. However, they did discover that video game exposure was a good way to predict if a low-risk preschooler would have higher levels of hyperactivity, in their study one out of every four had this behavioral problem, although they did not find this to be the case with any other kind of student or behavioral problems. This is important because children behavioral problems have been studied in detail and researchers have tried to narrow down what plays into them and how to predict what type of children will have them; likewise, this study showed that both nonviolent and violent video games, do not play into a massive number of children’s behavioral problems.