The workers began to feel “estranged” from their jobs, as rather than being paid for each product produced, they were being paid an hourly wage. In his manuscripts Marx explains what he means by the term "alienation", "The worker becomes poorer the more wealth he produces, the more his production increases in power and extent. The worker becomes an ever cheaper commodity the more commodities he produces . All these consequences are contained in this characteristic, that the worker is related to the product of labour as to an alien object" (Marx, 1844). Marx believed the workers were being exploited merely to benefit a capitalistic society, and they had no idea what they were working for.
This paper offers a systematic examination of the diverse possible relationships between monopoly power and class structure. The conceptual differentiation of power from class is central to the logic of our argument (Resnick and Wolff 1987, especially chapter 3).i Power, for us, is a process of wielding authority over or directing the behavior of individuals. These behaviors may be economic, cultural, political, and so on. Class is a different process; it entails producing, appropriating, and distributing surplus labor. There are different kinds of class processes - communist, capitalist, feudal, and so on - which vary according to who produces, appropriates, and distributes the social surplus and how that process is organized.
Some examples of such would be, illegally lobbying or bribing government leaders to gain passage of certain laws, or tax codes. Another form of class conflict may include, a lock out aimed at destroying a labor union, and this is called “open conflict”, or “hidden conflict”, which could be a slowdown in production protesting the wages being paid. According to Karl Marx however, class conflict and struggle are inevitable dissentions that occur because of the economic organization of most societies (Johnson, 2000). Marx also believed that class is defined by the ownership of property and such ownership vests a person with the power to exclude others from the property and to use it for personal purposes. In relation to property, there are three classes of society, they include, the bourgeoisie or the people who own the means of production such as factory and machinery buildings, and whose income is profit, landowners whose income is rent, and the proletariat who own their labor and sell it for a wage.
Believers and people who practice both socialism and capitalism have heavy criticism of each other. Socialists for example believe that Capitalists produce a system where there is a clear distinction among the rich and the poor. The system is believed to encourage exploitation of workers, so that the business owners become wealthy. These business owners are the ones in many cases who influence policies, by using their wealth to getting what they want, by funding political campaigns, for example. Capitalists, on the other hand, believe that Socialists deny people their basic rights of freedom of decisions and opportunities.
According to Marx, this economic system which he termed capitalism created an exploitative relationship between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, since the proletariat had little or no control over the distribution of profits and the labour which they provided (Giddens 2001:12). For Marx, capitalism is not only seen to be an unjust and oppressive system of economic production, but also one that exploits, one that limits man from his full capability, separates man from the products of his labour, and
Marx called the middle class the Bourgeoisie as they were either land owners or the bosses of factories and controlled society. The working class, which were the least powerful, were named the proletariat (Perry, 2009). This Marxist view allowed society to operate through class conflict and that the bourgeoisie and proletariat were opposed. Marx believed that the real wealth was created by the labour of the proletariat workers as the owners of the factories benefited from the work they produced within their factories (Perry, 2009). He would argue that the working class very rarely challenged capitalism as those who had control over the economy also had control over their families, education, religion and even the
The proletariat is deemed as inferior and the bourgeois superior. This creates a class struggle. Marx attempted to find a solution of capitalist exploitation. Marx argued that exploitation emerged in capitalism because firstly, the laborers are completely deprived of human social relations, secondly they are forced to work for a meager wage , and thirdly the capitalists use their power arbitrarily. Exploitation is a matter of surplus value (profit).
Karl Marx For Karl Marx the change from traditional to modern society happened because the modes of production changed. Marx also explains how societies change because of how the classes are struggling against each other, “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles” (Marx, 2011, p 32). So we can see Marx sees change through capitalism and conflict. He saw the basic division in society is the division between owners and non-owners of the means of production. Marx distinguished four types of production that have succeeded each other; these are primitive communism, ancient society, feudalism and capitalism.
Social dumping is concerned with the human rights and the labor problems. The reason why there is social dumping is the difference of labor standards between the importing country and the exporting country, which causes the difference of labor costs in these two countries. For example, in Asian countries like China, the labor legislations are relatively weak; employers take it granted to make people work overtime and hire young kids. These people do not know how to struggle for their own rights and a large surplus of labor makes the labor cost lower than that in other countries. Though the lower cost makes the exporting countries’ products competitive in the global market, the profit has been earned at the cost of individual’s wellbeing, social stability and development of the relative industries.
Although occupation is seemingly a person’s own choice, “we, the proletariat, don’t have the means to make our own living as we like, to create the society we’d like to live in. Thus, to survive in capitalist society we need the money to buy the commodities it produces” (Ruptura). This decision is limiting when you are not the person developing the revolutionary ideas which sell. People have the choice to work in whichever field they may please, yet they do so only to be able to afford the products set by larger franchises, as “things have a price, a value, because they are produced in a society in which private producers and consumers socialize the production through the market” (Ruptura). Capitalism and democracy reflect the competition of appealing to a greater audience; whether that be opposing political parties or rising businesses and stocks which strive for the most success.