Strategic factors played a changing role in Britain’s relationship with its African empire throughout the expansion period 1870-1902, the consolidation period 1902-1955 and the de-colonisation period 1955-1981. In some of these periods Strategy was right at the foreground of Britain’s rule in Africa and other times it was pushed to the back by other major factors. These include economic considerations, International relations, changing attitudes and nationalism. Many historians such as Martin Pugh saw that ‘the most obvious motive for British expansion was strategic’. Britain’s strategic motives in Africa centred on thwarting the growth of rival European powers as well as securing its interests in Africa.
Emily Shum During the 20th century, European imperialistic empires were beginning to come to an end. However, in India and Africa, independence would not come so easily. Freedom needed to be fought for, and the use of civil disobedience began to emerge. Gandhi, the leader of Indian independence movements used civil disobedience (salt march, boycotts) as one of his most effective methods of protest. Indians sought to invent an identity for themselves, apart from strict British colonial rule.
After Europe set up colonies all across the continent, there were many resources found. The slave trade was established in Africa while it was under the imperialism from Europe. Other important resources that were found in Africa were diamonds, especially in South Africa, and gold. Another key reason why Africa was under imperialism was because Europeans, not just the British, wanted to spread Christianity and religion wherever they conquered, and since Africa seemed uninfluenced by any form of religion, it seemed the perfect place to impose Christianity. Africa’s ports were also a major stopping point for most of the world, and Europe had ideas of spreading Christianity to the world and it would start one port at a time.
Name: James Allam Ejidio Course: African History CHANGES AND FACTORS THAT OCCURRED AFTER THE ARRIVAL OF EUROPEANS IN AFRICA Introduction From the 17th through the 20th centuries, Europeans powers scrambled to divide Africa among themselves in a monumentous colonial movement that left lasting impressions and far-reaching consequences for Africa and the international political stage. Five major impacts of colonialism in Africa were Combat against other African, long lasting racial oppression, widespread poverty, Underdevelopment and Distortion of the traditional organization of African life. Combat against other Africans Most Europeans
During the time of the European scramble for Africa, European countries fought to control the natural resources and colonize Africa. In response to the imperialism of Europeans African actions and reactions involve, diplomatic methods nonviolent and violent resistant. Documents 1, 2, 3 reveal evidence of how some African countries that was oppose to the imperialism of the Europeans deal with it by using diplomatic methods. The Royal Niger company document gives an example of how the British were willing to develop a diplomatic relationship with the chiefs of the African countries. It shows how the Royal Niger Company agrees on paying for the land and to respect native laws (doc 1).
African Action & Reaction DBQ In 1884, unbeknown to any of the Africans themselves until received with European arrival, the great European powers met up in Berlin and conjured up a grand plan that divided up Africa into each of the countries own mass of colonial territories, used for the betterment if their mother country, later coined as the term the “Scramble for Africa.” If it was an already inserted thought in the Europeans heads that the land of Africa was free for them to do with whatever they wanted is known only to them, but Africa most certainly did not completely according to script on their say in the division of the land. Some of the African countries from the beginning never wanted the presence of Europe on their land, before they even began to plan for arrival, while other African countries continuously waged war against the Europeans, in attempt to drive them from the land. The remainder of countries immediately backed down and surrendered to the strength of Europe. In 1891, when the Ashanti leader Prempeh I received a proposition from the Queen of England that the people of Ashanti could use protection from England; he rejected the offer in the kindest way a leader could reject a leader (Doc. 2).
These reserves became the basis for Apartheid; they became forcibly settled and segregated cheap labor rings. Africans and Europeans were strictly to purchase and lease land in respect to their own ethnicity. In opposition to these outrageous laws was the South African National Native Congress, which became later known as the African National Congress led by none other than Nelson Mandela. In the late 1940s, throughout the continent Africa began to see plans of reform that increased the representation of the African population. However, in South Africa European dominance continued as union legislative and executive positions were restricted only to the whites further solidifying their power over the state.
During the late 1800’s Britain was taking notice in three major interests in Africa that they wanted to take over for their own colonization and also for trade routes and for scrambles they could use during wars against the other countries. After the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 that Britain began to take notice of different point of the continent especially Egypt. After the Canal was built the British found out that the Canal was a faster route to India, which could increase trade and increase the countries economy. The only problem was that the Canal was built by the French and at this time the French and the British weren’t so friendly with each other. While stocks were selling the British the Canal quietly bought a majority of
In his views, Lincoln saw slavery as an unavoidable social evil that was essential to the economy . To the blacks, it was immoral and inhuman, but the Border States relied on the slave trade for their economic production. Abolishing slavery only meant altering the economic system in the slave Border States and this could only result in less support. Lincoln believed that slavery was destined to fade away with time but could not just be terminated abruptly. He advocated for a gradual termination of slavery but not a direct confrontation; first was the introduction of the Emancipation Proclamation, then the compensation of slave and finally colonization of the freed slave.
Nkrumah was in doubt about true independence and because of that, he wrote on neocolonialism. Neocolonialism is a condition where a country may be politically independent and still be economically dependent on other states. He also was involved in Pan-Africanism, and felt that Africa needed more development and African needed political unification of its countries. Nkrumah had an idea of an African Federation and it did not succeed. There was then the OAU Organization of African Unity.