Anthropologists such as Franz Boas and Bronislaw Malinowski argued that any human science had to transcend the ethnocentrism of the scientist. Both urged anthropologists to conduct ethnographic fieldwork in order to overcome their ethnocentrism. Boas developed the principle of cultural relativism and Malinowski developed the theory of functionalism as guides for producing non-ethnocentric studies of different cultures. The books The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia, by Bronisław Malinowski, Patterns of Culture by Ruth Benedict, and Coming of Age in Samoa by Margaret Mead (two of Boas's students)
The Cause of Mental Illness from Dumit & Luhrmann’s Perspective Does the body or the mind cause mental illness? This question is one of the topics that anthropologists Dumit and Luhrmann explore and try and find reasoning to. They both consider that mental illness is influenced by cultural and social factors, affecting the mind and a persons lived body experience, or that it is biologically innate, which is in reference to the objective body. In this paper, I will be exploring Luhrmann’s, Of Two Minds, and Dumit’s A Digital Image of the Category of the Person to argue the origin and causation of mental illness as both influenced by the objective body and the social body. In Dumit’s A Digital Image of the Category of the Person, he explains that the body is a cultural lived tense and the point of reference for an individual.
According to Victor Raskin (1985), “responding to humor is part of human behavior, ability or competence, other parts of which compromise such important social and psychological manifestations of homo sapiens as language, morality, logic, faith, etc. Just as all of those, humor may be described as partly natural and partly acquired”. In this paper, I will use interactional sociolinguistics to analyze the exchange of jokes among college students using sarcasm and criticism as basis of humor. Interactional sociolinguistics (IS) looks into the socially conditioned patterns in conversations. It is influenced by John Gumperz, an anthropologist and Erving Goffman, a sociologist.
The Indigenization of Marketing Theory: A Philosophical Foundation Introduction Social sciences encompass various disciplines aiming at studying human behavior. This very nature of social sciences requires that social scientists must consider the cultural, economic, and social context of their studies (Dye 1993; Hunt and Colander 1987; Perry and Perry 1994). Indigenization, therefore, seems to be a fundamental requirement in conducting social science research and developing social science theories. Nevertheless, there have still been a lot of discussion on the issue of indigenization in social sciences among certain social scientists (Adair et al. 1995; Akiwowo 1988; Alger and Lyons 1976; Gareau 1988; Liu 1994; Loubser 1988; Park 1988; Sanda 1988; Smart 1994; Xu 1994; Yeh 1994).
In cultural psychology the mental processes are compared with the society and the individual who has grown up in that society. Comparatively, cross-cultural psychologists systematically research behavior across cultures in different cultural situations (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Critical Thinking Critical thinking in cross-cultural psychology is important because cross-cultural psychology is about identifying the similarities and differences in individuals and how they function in his or her culture. Critical thinking is about making realistic, valid and reasonable evidence. Critical thinking is described as maintaining an attitude that is open=minded and doubtful (Shiraev & Levy, 2010).
The Impact of Language Variables on Communication And Persuasion in Advertising Introduction Advertising is a type of persuasive discourse that reflects the attempt or intention to change the behavior, feelings, intentions or viewpoint of another by communicative means (Lakoff, 1990). Since advertising is a specific discourse genre, we would expect to find some overall similarities in advertising discourse in different cultures. Nelson Mandela once stated: "If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his language that goes to his heart." To see how this notion can be practically applied, the goal of this research is to examine cultural aspects of advertising by focusing on advertisers` language strategies in relation to the social relationships established between advertiser and consumer.
The personal construct theory is a critical social approach, a protest theory in reaction to psychometric and the experimental tradition (Butt, 2007). My proposal is that the personal construct theory was able to produce knowledge of individual differences in people’s lived experience that psychometric tests and scientific tradition were unable to excess. Since personal construct theory’s is a reaction to the scientific methodologies on individual differences, it is important for this study to firstly discuss cognitive social, trait theories and psychometric testing. The experimental tradition was
In Balinese culture, the one activity that appeals to many people in the culture are the cockfights. To Balinese men, however, their relationship with cock fights is far greater than anyone else’s. The Balinese men spend quality time grooming, feeding, and talking about their most precious cock before they send it to fight. Like most animal fights, you can place bets on which cock you think would win a fight, however you must do so by yelling out the characteristics of the cock (placement counts); another rule is that you may not bet against those kin to you or your neighbor. Like the Balinese, Animation is a culture of its own.
His subjects ranged from interactive public behavior to forms of speech, often following the school of symbolic interactionism. His theories facilitated a great deal of insight with regard to personality development and individual behavior. This paper will comment and critique the theoretical works of Goffman, specifically his theories of dramaturgy, impression management and stigma. The notion of Dramatrugy emerged from Goffman’s first published works, The Presentation of the Self in Everyday Life. Described as a “theatrical performance” put forth by the individual in order to control or guide the impression they are making by altering or reshaping their manner, appearance or setting thereby achieving desirable results (Goffman, 1959).
On one of his business trips, he meets Tyler Durden (Brad Pitt), a soap salesman who challenges the comfortable materialist assumptions that Jack’s life had been made up of. They meet again on the ground and set up Fight Club. That’s how the story develops. In a world where people are sick of everything around them, the physical contacts of fighting wakes them up and makes them feel truly alive. It offers a wakeup call to people immersed in a materialistic world and wants us to figure out what we really want in our life.