Rational knowledge is often derived from syllogisms. Unless both the major and minor premises of syllogisms are sound, the logical conclusions drawn from the rational thoughts are unsound. Scientists cannot rely on rational knowledge alone because rational knowledge involved only form and not content (Jackson, 2009). Empirical knowledge is gained through objective observations and a person’s experience in relation to his or her senses (Jackson, 2009). A person who relies on empirical knowledge only believes what can be detected by his/her senses (sight, sound, taste, etc.).
G.E Moore begins by rejecting ethical naturalism, the belief that ethical knowledge is based on empirical evidence. ethical naturalism observes that physical properties such as rough, smooth can be discovered through observations in the world around us; in the same way moral properties such as wicked or kind can be defined through observation. Moore felt to define an ethical statement as a factual one, is to confuse goodness with some other non- moral property. For example, to describe a knife as good is to confuse the term good with the term sharp. From this Moore claimed that it is impossible to derive an ‘is from an ought’.
Meta ethics tries to make sense of the terms and concepts used in ethical theories such as Utilitarianism and Natural Law. Some people believe that ethical language is extremely meaningful as they argue it is essential to be able to define terms such as “good” and “bad” before we can even begin to discuss ethical theories. However others disagree with this and argue that moral statements are subjective so are meaningless, as they cannot be described as either true or false. Those who hold cognitive theories about ethical language would argue that ethical statements are not meaningless as they are about facts, and can therefore be proved true or false. Ethical Naturalism is a cognitive theory of meta ethics which holds the belief that
(Sourced form the Dictionary) Functionalism is a sociological paradigm that originally attempted to explain social institutions as collective means to fill individual biological needs. Later, it came to focus on the ways in which social institutions fill social needs, especially social stability. Functionalism is a major sociological tradition, alongside other schools of thought, such as Conflict Theory and Interactionism. The theory is associated with Émile Durkheim and more recently with Talcott Parsons. It was developed by other sociologists in the 20th century and was a popular idea until the 1970s when it came under criticism from new ideas.
Perspectivalism differs from the first two in that it states that it is impossible for accepted scientific theory to be in conflict with religion. Perspectivalists believe that science and religion describe the same realities but in different ways. They deal with the same things but tend to ask different questions about them. The fourth and last model for relating science and religion is harmony. In this model the harmonizers position is that religion and science go hand in hand and that they coexist with each other.
Throughout history, people can not exist without storytelling because of its great power and the materials that shapes every human endeavour. Storytelling satisfied need to explain surrounding physical world, the novel Haroun and the Sea of Stories is an intriguing tale that could easily be classified as a children's story, but beneath its surface it shows one man's struggle to overcome censorship and religious persecution. In today's society, people have to defend literature against tyranny so humans have the right to express freedom of speech. Literature is a communication is a soul engine of democracy, literary expression's an unconscious product of the collective experience of the entire human species, and literature has the ability to reveal the truth people have fail to see. First of all, the reason why one must defend literature against tyranny communication is because a soul engine of democracy.
the application of science to fulfill a need or address a problem * How are technology and science related? How are they different? related by helping scientists make discoveries, technology fulfills needs and addresses problems. technology is an application of science Nature of Science topic * Define each of the following terms: * hypothesis an educated guess * theory well supported, well accepted explanation for a broad range of observations * law well-supported description of the behavior of the natural world * fact a phenomena about which competent observers agree * What is the difference between a scientific theory and a scientific law? law describes, theory explains * What is the difference between a scientific theory and a scientific hypothesis?
The word objective immediately brings to mind a state of actual existence, as opposed to simply ideal existence. We normally associate something like a chair or a table with objective reality, and we don’t consider it to have the same nature of existence as say ‘beauty’ or ‘parenthood’, even though most would agree that all these things ‘exist’ in one way or another. Mackie defines something being objective as ‘Being part of the fabric of the world’, i.e. it has an ontological, mind dependant existence. As a further definition, Mackie posits that an objective moral value has the quality of ‘ought-to-be-pursued-ness’, it is something one should or ought do because it contains an inherently normative aspect.
Society is like the nature, an objective factual reality; it is a "real" thing made up of social facts that exists "out there", independently of individuals. They seek to discover the causes of patterns they observe to produce general statements or scientific laws, like natural scientists do. In order to do this, they use objective quantitative research, meaning value-free and number based data. They make up a hypothesis and test it in systematic and controlled ways, like in experiments. So these methods produce reliable data that can be checked by other researchers, which is one of the most important features in science.
A scientifically accepted general principle supported by a substantial body of evidence offered to provide an explanation of observed facts and as a basis for future discussion or investigation (Lincoln et al.,1990). Again in simple terms, a theory explains how nature works. Can be modified. In conclusion, scientific laws and theories officially do not have the same meaning. I can understand how people can confuse these two words for having the same