In what ways were the conditions different for the African Americans in the north and south in 1945? After the Second World War had ended, black Americans that were fighting for freedom and justice from Germany and Japan, found that they had return to their country that was overridden with discrimination and racism in 1945. They treated as second-class citizens. The Black American was unable to neither integrate with the mainstream of American society nor become independent farmers. However, generally the Northern blacks were somewhat better off than the Southern blacks in 1945.
Slavery was a natural part of the Southern economy even though very few of the population actually owned slaves. Slaves could be rented or traded or sold to pay debts, making them very useful to ranchers. The North didn’t seem to have much use for slaves due to their poor soil; therefor they could not understand why the South was against abolishing slavery. I don’t believe that this war could be avoided due to the issue of slavery. If America didn’t stand against slavery, then the slaves themselves would have eventually done so.
This made it a conflict of interest for them; they couldn’t believe that they were fighting for their country, but yet they were still treated as lower class. This is where the ‘double V’ sign started, as it symbolised that they were fighting for freedom broad, and for freedom at home. Segregation continued throughout the war. The black soldiers had their own separate canteens and transport from the white soldiers. Some were denied the right to fight, and made to be cooks and cleaners; those who did make it on the front line were given worse training than the white soldiers and were also given worse equipment.
This meant that a black man had just as much say as a white man in a court of law and was protected from prejudice and racial segregation as of the 1875 Civil Rights Act. These developments caused by the Civil War were helped by presidents Lincoln and Johnson. Lincoln believed in equal racial rights and the abolition of slavery, as did Johnson; except when Johnson became president he hindered the development of black Civil Rights because although he encouraged the 13th amendment; he was a white supremacist and was not in support for equal racial rights and in 1866 tried to veto the Civil Rights Bill. This
Many of these facilities were, education, healthcare, transport, cinemas, restaurants and churches and even housing and estates were segregated. This shows the extent white went to separate them from the ‘inferior’ race. Jim Crow laws limited black Americans from having a better way of life as they were made poorer, didn’t have the opportunity to managerial roles as they were only allowed the low paying jobs and weren’t equal to white people increasing poor conditions, also, led to unequal or no voting rights in coloured communities. Under the Fifteenth Amendment black people had legal rights to vote across America. However, many southern states found ways around the laws to disenfranchise the black populations.
The progression from industrial to information age had a negative impact on blacks because their skills were neither able to be used in the high paying high skilled jobs, nor in the low wage sweat ship jobs. 2) From Chapter 8 discuss how Robert Merton’s strain theory applies to this film? Your answer should include the definition of what the theory is as well as the four adaptation steps. The strain theory is society socializing people to desire a certain goal but not allowing some the means by which to obtain that goal. The four adaptive steps are innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion.
Although the end of the American civil war marked the end of slavery for African Americans, it did not mark their acceptance and equality with white people. Many southern states resented losing their slaves and were determined to keep African Americans as second class citizens. In 1950 segregation was in full force, meaning African Americans had separate churches, public transport, theatres, schools, hotels, swimming pools and many other facilities to white people. Segregation also applied to where people lived, so African Americans could only live in certain areas separate from white people, with these areas being much worse than the white suburbs, despite the separate but equal principle. Even when this was challenged in the Plessy vs Ferguson Supreme Court case the separate but equal principle was found to be constitutional.
Due to this boom the amount of unemployed African American workers fell sharply from 937,000 to 151,000 making black Americans more equal citizens and less disenfranchised. Despite the alterations made in the North, in the southern states, African Americans were still predominantly employed in poorly paid agricultural jobs. As it did in the North the war caused a boom in the south as well, however black people were not able to get well-paying jobs until A. Philip Randolph threatened to lead a march on Washington unless jobs were opened up to black workers. This development though did lead to some progression, President Roosevelt in direct response created the FEPC in 1941, which was a solid win for the black
All of this was put in place to ensure that it was incredibly difficult for African-Americans to improve their status. However, in 1947 President Truman released 'To Secure These Rights' which outlined the basic rights of all American citizens. This included jobs, homes, education, anti-lynching and voting rights but no legislation followed so there was very little impact. Despite this, Truman issued an executive order which ended discrimination in the Armed Forces which to an extent improved the status of African-Americans. Education was also a big factor resulting in limited progress of improving the status of African-Americans because they consistently received a lower standard of education.
While this report was very significant, its proposals were only recommendations and in practice Truman was not able to achieve every proposal due to a lack of support from Congress. Also, Truman used his power as President to appoint black Americans in important governmental roles. For example, he appointed Ralph Bunche as American Ambassador to the UN. So, whilst Truman was the first President since Lincoln to publicly commit himself to a civil rights agenda, his achievements were limited and no legislation followed his proposals. Therefore, Truman’s presidency had a small impact in improving the status of black Americans, but Congress had no impact at all as they constrained civil rights proposals.