In the south over $4.5 billion was spent creating factories that made war goods, yet those who were hiring were reluctant to give jobs to black people and so after the threat to lead a march to Washington by A. Philip Randolph, President Roosevelt issued the Fair Employment Practices Commission (1941) which forced employers to not discriminate on the grounds of “race, creed, colour or national origin” this ultimately led to the migration of a vast number of Black Americans from the rural areas to the cities to get work. The Second World War impacted the economic situation of black Americans in several ways, for example; as they moved to the cities to help with the war effort they were paid more than if they lived and worked in the rural areas, over 500,000 African Americans migrated to the north to work in industrial environments, this as well as the fact that over 1.2 black men went to work in the army, resulted in the number of unemployed African Americans from 937,000 in 1940 to 151,000 in 1945. This shows that the war had an effect on the lives of black
During the reconstruction era through to the Progressive era much had changed for the African Americans. After the assassination of President Lincoln (April 14, 1865) President Andrew Johnson continued the “ten percent plan”. The African Americans wanted land, voting rights and wanted to be educated which had been denied to them for centuries, they were considered to be economically and racially inferior compared to the whites. During the years of 1867 to 1870 the African Americans were able to increase their amount of social power. However with this increase of power came a group of southerners led by an ex-confederate forming the Ku Klux Klan in 1867.
How freedoms for African Americans were socially, politically, and economically limited from 1865 to 1900 After the Civil War ended with Union victory, constitutional amendments were ratified to grant equal rights and freedom to enslaved African Americans; however, these rights were limited, restricted by those discriminating against African Americans. This new opportunity, promising African Americans better lives soon turned into lives full of terror and poverty. Many were poor, segregated in public facilities, and harassed, threatened or beaten by White Supremacy terror groups. Instead of living hopeful lives full with prosperity the African Americans wished for, they struggled to survive under conditions that gave them as much freedom as slaves had. African Americans’ social rights were very limited partially because of the Black Codes and Jim Crow laws.
‘To what extent were Black Americans 2nd class citizens by the end of World War II?’ By the end of the Second World War, there were clear signs of change for Black Americans. At first black people were unable to get jobs due to racism. Black activist A. Philip Randolph was appalled at this ‘colour bar’. In response to Randolph’s threats, Roosevelt issued an executive order creating the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) in 1941. This forced industries employed in the war effort not to discriminate on the grounds of ‘race, creed, colour or national origin’ when deciding who to hire.
WALTER FRANCIS WHITE Walter Francis White was born on July 1st 1893 in Atlanta, Georgia. At that time Atlanta had Jim Crow laws so Walter White had to attend African American schools, although his appearance did not resemble that of his classmates, Walter White looked white. He is quoted from his autobiography A Man Called White in saying “I am a Negro. My skin is white, my eyes are blue and my hair is blond. The Traits of my race are nowhere visible upon me.” Even though African American schools were not known for their quality he was able to obtain admission to Atlanta University.
Slavery in America was abolished in 1865 after the Southern States had surrendered to the Northern States in the Civil War. Racial segregation, however, did not end with the conclusion of slavery. African Americans endured years of racial inequality because of Jim Crow Laws that were passed, legally separating blacks from whites in areas and activities (Jim Crow Law ). White people, as a result of these laws, continued treating African Americans as inferior people. An example of this is evident when Phoenix Jackson meets the white hunter in the forest.
Instead of the government allowing slavery, it looked like it found a loop hole to not treat people of color equally for anything whether it was sports, school or public facilities blacks were still treated as inferior. Thankfully the civil rights movement that occurred during the 1950’s and 1960’s would turn out successful after years of civil demonstrations (some which would become riots e.g. : Birmingham, Alabama), marches, and speeches. One might say that one of the most famous speeches of the civil rights movement, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have A Dream” speech, would see fruition when looking at today’s society despite some traces of racism. Now we live in an era where different races can co-exist.
A Short History of Reconstruction By: Eric Forner Book Review The Short History of Reconstruction by Eric Foner gives insight about the years after the Civil War and the Reconstruction of America. This book covers the time span of the entire Reconstruction and spans from the end of the Civil War to just before the 1900’s. It focuses more on the South’s Reconstruction than the North, because the war had a greater and more identifiable effect in the South. One of the most widespread complications of the Reconstruction that Forner discusses was the lack of housing and jobs for the newly freed blacks. A great contributor to this issue was racism among the white population.
Du Bois rejected the gradualist approach urged by Booker T. Washington and began the Niagara Movement for racial justice and equality, resulting in the creation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910. Despite limited gains, African Americans continued to experience violence, segregation, and discrimination. “I Hear the Whistle”: Immigrants in the Labor Force- The “new” immigration of southern and eastern Europeans continued in the early twentieth century. Not all immigrants
Treatment of African Americans as second class citizens was still bad regarding economics in the north, but not as severe as in the south. For example, a mass migration of brought two million blacks to northern cities to seek out better economic opportunities. Also, unemployment in the north fell from almost one million to around 150000 by 1945. This was due to the creation of jobs in factories during World War 2, when it became easier for blacks to get jobs (although not as easy as it was for whites). In the