The Turks laid siege to Vienna but he successfully repelled the Turks; which was the last attempt by the Ottoman Empire to take control of Eastern Europe. (Chapter Outlines ) The war ended with the Peace of Karlowitz, which ratified Habsburg conquered all of Hungary and Transylvania by 1699. (Chapter Outlines ) In the Austrian empire after the Thirty Years' War, the Austrian Habsburgs turned inward and eastward to unify their holdings. The Habsburgs replaced the Bohemian Czech nobility with their own warriors. (Chapter Outlines ) The Habsburg possessions consisted of Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary, which were joined in a fragile union.
For the next two centuries the Turkish military leaders ruled over the parts of the empire it conquered until it was eventually no longer the Abbasid Empire. Beginning its intrusions in the East, the Turkish invasions on the Byzantine Empire slowly gained them more Byzantine territory until finally in 1453, the Turks gained control of the capitol Constantinople and all the land that remained under Byzantine control. Similarly, the invasions began by capturing small portions of the Byzantine and Islamic worlds until eventually they created an immense impact and the Turks had conquered and gained control over the entire empire. Being firm believers of the Sunni religion, the Turks had a large religious influence that impacted the lands they conquered. As they gained control over the lands, they quickly ridded the Abbasid Empire of the Shi’a officials and advanced the protection of their lands from the Shi’a caliphs and their armies.
The United States also agreed to help Turkey and Greece in return Turkey would allow the United States to use the waterways between the Mediterranean and Black Seas. The Marshall Plan also came into play. George C. Marshall stated, “Our policy is the revival of a working economy in the world so as to permit the emergence of political and social conditions in which free institutions can be built” ("Truman Warns Britain and Russia Near East Rivalry Could Bring War," 1946) . The response to the Marshall Plan was, “the U.S.S.R. will put all effort into seeing that the Marshall Plan is not realized”, Andrei A. Zhdanov ("Truman Warns Britain and Russia Near East Rivalry Could Bring War," 1946). These two statements reflect the tension between the United States and the U.S.S.R. During this time, the United Nations membership also grew.
Based on the following documents, discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the Muslim empires. What types of additional documentation would help access the rise and fall of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals? Historical Background Beginning in 1280, the Ottoman Turks rose from a minor frontier state to control most of Southeastern Europe, Southwest Asia and parts of North Africa. For centuries, European Christians refused to ring church bells for fear that local inhabitants would think the Turks had invaded. Starting in the early 1500s CE, in Persia and India, the Safavids and Mughals created powerful states, whose institutions and policies shared many similarities to the Ottoman Empire.
The law explains that parents have the power over their children and their sons children. However, their daughters children, will be in the power of her husbands father. Christianity effected Western Civilization very much. Constantine, who was the first Christian emperor created the Edict of Milan. This law was granting religious freedom to all.
Also according to the High Middle Ages Chapter, the fourth crusade also added to the schism that existed between the Eastern and Western Churches. The crusaders sort of sell out to Alexius IV, who arranged to pay for their debts to the Doge in return that they attack Constantinople so that he may gain the throne. Pope Innocent III warned them not to attack Constantinople because they were fellow Christians. The crusaders advance Alexius IV to the throne, but he was later strangled by Alexius Ducas who also wanted the throne. The crusaders with the help of the Venetians rebelled and they sacked Constantinople for three days against the warnings from the pope.
Wallachia is a province of Romania bordered to the North by Transylvania and Moldavia, to the East by the Black Sea and to the South by Bulgaria. Even thought his father fought against the Turks, Vlad later joined to fight with the Turks, but it did not last long until he changed sides and opposed the Turkish rule. Also, during Vlad’s ruling periods was when the people were most loyal to him. Vlad Dracul, their father, made a promise to the Sultan that he would be the Sultan’s vassal. In order for the Sultan to have a warranty, in 1442, when Vlad was only thirteen, him and his brother, Radu, were taken away to Adrianople to be held as hostages.
Each group believed they were right and the other group was wrong. The Crusaders blazed the holy way and engaged the fight against the Muslim's Allah and the Christian's Jesus. They all continued to struggle for the land that they thought their God called them to capture. This all took place in 1st, 2nd and 3rd Crusade. The Crusades brought tremendous change in the political, economic, and social structures of Europe.
The reason for doing this was so the soldier’s could move over the land and attack the forts. These forts were overlooking the Dardanelles Straight allowing them to strike at the capital of Turkey, Constantinople. Their goal was to take control of the Dardanelles. This would allow the allied ships to get supplies through to Russia and thus put more pressure on the eastern front. They were also hoping to take Turkey out of the war.
The Third Crusade (1189 – 1192 A.D.) was just one of a series of religious wars fought between Muslims in the Middle East and European Christians to take control of the Holy City of Jerusalem. This Third Crusade is unique because of the two iconic leaders that led each side of the conflict. These two leaders were King Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt led the Islamic forces to defend Jerusalem from King Richard I of England, who was trying to retake the Holy City in the name of Christianity. Throughout history, chroniclers and historians portray these two leaders as charismatic, honorable, virtuous, chivalrous, among other magnanimous adjectives. Along with this very flattering portrayal, the history and chronicles portray these men in such ways, they almost seem mythical in nature; that they can do things beyond the capabilities of most “normal” men.