To what extent were the dictators Hitler and Mussolini responsible for the outbreak of WW2 in Europe Dictators Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini are largely responsible for the outbreak of WW2. This is due to the aggressive and dangerous foreign policies. It aggravated tensions between European powers and the Western Allies. Even though these two dictators played a major role in the outbreak of war, the little resistance from the Allies gave the dictators breathing room to enforce such heavy foreign policies and ultimately create fear and tensions between nations. Other influences include the League of Nations which failed the principle of collective security and the enforcements of demilitarisation.
This treaty placed blame solely on Germany resulting in loss of the Rhineland, also Germany had to demilitarize and pay back billions to allies as part of war reparations. This push by the Allied powers left Germany defeated but not destroyed as this loss offered a starting point for a political push away from the imperial government of the past to a new republic as Germans began to revolt. Named the Weimar Republic, the new government in place was incapable of dealing with the complex problems via the Treaty of Versailles. Hyperinflation and political revolts began to affect the country. The sanctions of the treaty placed Germany was in dismay, this offered neighboring European countries the ability to take advantage of Germany.
In 1938, Hitler’s generals made plans to invade Czechoslovakia. He also instructed Heinlein, a pro-Nazi politician to start disorder in the Sudetenland, so people would believe the Czech government was incapable of maintaining order. Hitler planned to use this unrest to send his own army in to restore stability. Hitler was able to execute his plan without difficulty, as France and Britain were following the appeasement policy, where they would allow Nazi Germany to do essentially anything they wanted in the hope that Hitler would eventually be appeased and cease his aggressive policies. This meant they let him increase Germany’s armed forces and put them in the Rhineland, in violation of the Treaty of Versailles.
The nature of fascism itself was very aggressive and linked to the rise of dictatorships also increased the idea of revenge and violence. Germany and Italy also dealt with the economic crisis in 1929 in an aggressive way. And the fact that the League of Nations should ensure peace in the world and it was weak and failed facing Germany and Italy aggression let both countries became even more powerful and aggressive. One of the reasons for the German and Italian aggressive foreign policy was The Paris Peace Settlement, which was created to punish Germany. Nobody was happy with it and Italy and Germany wanted revenge.
Germany’s decision to build a navy that would rival Britain’s did nothing but sour relations further between the two dominant powers of Europe at the time. This triggered a naval race and due to Britain’s adoption of the ‘two power standard’ in 1889 as well as Germany’s decision to reconstruct their fleet in 1998. The naval race, coupled with the second Moroccan crisis of 1911 ruined relations between the two powers as this was the first time the possibility of war stared
The politicians, who signed the peace treaty on behalf of Germany, were named and shamed as ‘stabbing Germany in the back’. This notion was emphasised by opposing political parties who were egger to take any opportunity to make these politicians look bad to the people of Germany. Germany was a militaristic state which and the republic was not going to succeed with so many opposing forces such as ex-soldiers who were willing to fight any rivals. The treaty of Versailles caused a profound sense of injustice and resentment amongst the German people therefore this translated into hatred of democracy. The treaty was not the only reason for the failure of the Weimar Republic, issues such as the period time and the great depression contributed to this also.
Weltpolitik caused tensions and led to a naval race between Germany and Britain and created a naval scare in the world. The historian Fritz Fischer arguments that Germany was to blame for causing WW1, with presenting the ‘September Programme’ where Germany’s aims for the Domination of Europe is set, like their Weltpolitik was also about. The July crisis was the crisis, which pushed Europe in to war. Germany urged Austria-Hungary on to attack Serbia with the ‘’blank check’’, which also assured a full back up from Germany. Germany interpreted Russia’s mobilization as virtual equivalent to declaring war, and that meant that in order for the Schlieffen plan to succeed, Germanys army had to attack and defeat France before moving eastwards to fight Russian forces.
It has been argued for a long time if Germany is to blame for causing world war one. This essay will argue if Germany is responsible for the first world war which took part in 1914-1918. There can be different opinions to this question but it is hard to blame only one contry for such a big war. German government was very eager to rule the world and be part of the big countries in Europe, especially like Great Britain. This ruling is inadequate and can make the other countries aggressive and full of hatred.
When Hitler first came to power he was determined to make Germany a great power again and to dominate Europe. Set out in Mein kampf, Hitlers main aims of foreign policy were, to destroy the Treaty of Versailles imposed on Germany after its defeat in World War One, to unite all german speakers together in one country, and to expand eastwards into the East (Poland, Russia) to gain Lebensraum for Germany. Given Germany’s weaknesses in 1933, Hitler realised that he had to move cautiously. The German army had been limited to 100,000 by the treaty of Versailles, the economy was still in depression, Germany had no allies and was surrounded by hostile alliances constructed by France. Hitler’s short-term objectives were, therefore, to secure alliances, undermine his rivals, achieve more acceptable aims, and above all, give an appearance of moderation.
German land west and as far as 30 miles east of the Rhine was established as a demilitarized zone.’(Duiker & Spielvogel, 2010) The Germany government needed to accept the harsh treaty with no choice. The reparations made Germany’s economy in a worse state and Germans got a hard life at that time. Therefore, the thought of revenge were established and it leaded to the rise of Adolf Hitler, which was the essential person in WWII. The rise up of Adolf Hitler and Mussolini also take an important role for the outbreak of WWII. The rising of Hitler and Mussolini represented that the