Isolation of Eugenol from Clove Buds using Steam Distillation Max Beard Abstract Eugenol – C10H12O2 The main volatile oil extracted from clove buds is eugenol. It is used in a variety of ways in traditional medicine and can be isolated successfully using a variety of methods. Isolation was performed using steam distillation. A 3.0% yield of eugenol oil was observed during the experiment. Introduction Eugenol is an essential oil with a formula of C10H12O2 and a member of the phenylpropanoid family.
Analysis: 1. The candle getting smaller and the wax melting are physical changes. Wick turning black, candle having rain drop shaped fire, and the fire having different colored layers are all chemical changes. 2. The candle wax burns as a vapor because when the smoke it’s put into the other flame, the flame gets bigger which means it’s feeding off of the smoke.
The firing or steaming process is done immediately after plucking to retain as much of the vibrant green color as possible and to stop oxidation. The heating is rapid and the leaves are left more pliable and ready for rolling or shaping. Green Teas of China are tossed by hand in a hot pan or wok or heated in a revolving drum. Wood fires or charcoal, hot air, or steam are used to create distinctive flavors. The leaves can then be shaped by hand or machine and dried.
Measure approximately 1 g of Copper(II) Sulfate Hydrate into the crucible and crucible and lid. 4. Heat the crucible gently. 5. Stirring carefully and observe the color of the hydrate until it changes to a consistent white color, then the Copper(II) Sulfate is dehydrated.
Heat Of Combustion Of Candle Wax Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the amount of heat that was released when a gram of candle wax burns. Materials and Equipment: Empty pop can Candle attached to a piece of cardboard Celsius thermometer Ring stand Iron ring Stirring rod 250mL beaker 100mL graduated cylinder Ice Data and Observations: Mass of pop can and water: 149.88 grams Mass of empty pop can: -14.05 grams Mass of water in pop can: 135.83 grams Mass of a candle stuck to a piece of cardboard: 31.77 grams Mass of candle and cardboard after candle burned: -31.01 grams Mass of candle burned: 0.76 grams Final temperature of water in pop can: 35.0 (C Initial temperature of water in pop can: -9.5 (C Change in temperature: 25.5 (C Calculations: q = m ( c ( (T q(# of cal. or joules absorbed by the water) = m(mass of water in grams) ( c(1 cal./1g 1(C) ( (T(change in temp. (C) c = 1.00 cal/g (C or c = 4.18 J/g (C Conclusions and Questions: 10. (a.)
Nail polish remover contains the mixtures yellow dye, water, gelatin, fragrance, propylene carbonate and glycerol. So you have to do the heating by immersing a 25 Mk flask into the beaker with water filled into a hot plate. Experimental Procedures 1. First you have to set the distillation apparatus up. Use the ring stand & clamps to support the apparatus.
The beaker was then moved to a stir plate with a stir bar and held in place by a ring stand. A funnel attached to an aspirator hose was fixed above to serve as a fume hood. With the aspirator and stir plate both on, 4.79 mL of 6 M HNO3 was added slowly to the beaker until the copper dissolved and the solution turned a light blue color. The hood could now be removed and 10.02 mL of distilled water was added to the solution. While stirring, 6 M NaOH was added drop-wise until the solution became basic, turning red litmus paper blue.
The first was done by setting up a Reflux apparatus in order to heat the reaction mixture which contained 2.5mL of isopentyl alcohol, 3.5mL of glacial acetic acid, and 0.5mL of concentrated sulfuric acid(catalyst). The mixture was left to boil for 60 minutes(1hr) with a boiling stone inside the heating vial for mixing. After completion of the heating process, the vial with the product was left to cool to room temperature. The next step was to extract the organic layer of the product. First, the product was transferred from the heating vial to a centrifuge tube
Overview of Steam Boilers * A steam boiler is a vessel that contains water and a heat source powered by oil, coal or gas. The boiler transfers heat from the heat source to the water vessel, thereby turning the water into steam. This steam exits the vessel through a pipe and is transported to another location where it can be used for cleaning, to power equipment, to provide heat or for a number of other functions. A closed boiler system is one in which 100 percent of the steam is returned to the vessel in the form of water and reused. Closed boiler systems are very efficient and less costly to operate.
Hypothesis: I believe that we should be able to get multiple bubbles of carbon dioxide, because the carbon dioxide is produced producing small air sacs. Procedures: First, we gathered all of our materials. These are a fermentation bottle, a rubber stopper and a fermentation bubbler (see figure 1), yeast, water, and corn syrup. We added water into the fermentation bubbler until it was settled on both sides, and then attached the rubber stopper to the bubbler. Next, we put 10 mL of warm water into the fermentation bottle.