To what extent was the policy of appeasement mainly responsible for the collapse of International Peace by 1939? The policy of appeasement was led by Britain and France in the 1930s, when it referred to attempting to satisfy Germany's demands by negotiation and compromise, which would avoid war. It was implemented after World War 1 which was 1936 and ended at 1939. At 1939, September 1, Britain declared the World War 2. It is clear that if the Western Powers were against Hitler, war could have been avoided, it encouraged Hitler, Hitler could never be appeased, and that it prompted the Nazi-Soviet Pact.
The pact was the final cause of war as Hitler could now invade Poland without any interference from Stalin. Britain and France had declared war on Germany as they guaranteed Poland’s independence. However, the policy of appeasement in the 1930’s also played a big role in causing the Second World War. Appeasement had led Hitler to believe that Britain and France were weak. Britain and France gave Germany the Rhineland, the Sudetenland and they were allowed to have an Anschluss with Austria.
An example of this was the remilitarization of the Rhineland in 1936. Britain and France allowed him to do this and the British released a statement saying Hitler was simply, ‘marching into his back yard.’ This policy taught Hitler that aggression paid off. More importantly, Appeasement scared Stalin. Stalin was the dictator in the U.S.S.R. His army were not advanced enough to stand a chance against even a small German army and he feared Britain and France would not help the Soviets if the Germans invaded them. This therefore led to him signing the Nazi-Soviet pact.
How far was the Treaty of Versailles justified at the time? The Treaty of Versailles was an agreement between 32 nations deciding the fate of Germany. It was needed badly as war torn Europe was in turmoil. France had been devastated by the effects of war and sought to cripple Germany. The British Prime Minister, Lloyd George, realised the severe implications that this could have and so wanted a more lenient peace treaty.
· Alsace-Lorraine was taken from Germany and given to France. David Lloyd George was the British prime minister when the treaty of versailles was in place. David Lloyd george feared a harsh treaty would create future bitterness and make Germany too weak to resist
A German diplomat named Bismarck knew that Germany’s neighbouring European Powers’ reaction would be to unite against their new empire. He was determined not allow the nation to become isolated or overpowered, so it was he who began the chain of international alliances which would form over following years. Bismarck practised a particular type of diplomacy called ‘Realpolitik’. This is defined as politics based on strictly practical, rather than idealistic, notions. However this particular style of diplomacy was also described as unprincipled and unscrupulous.
The policy of appeasement, embraced in vain by Great Britain and France in the 1930s, was ultimately a bid to reach a peaceful understanding with Germany. However this was only a failed policy which directly would lead to war as it encouraged Hitler, abandonining policy would have prevented such a brutal war, Hitler was an unreasonable dictator and that had always intended to fight a war and that he would not be appeased. These crucial factors ensured that appeasement policy would Utltimlty the appeasement directly resulting in the Second World War Brittan and France With the rise of Hitler Germany sought to revise the terms of paris peace settlement through aggression as he stated in mieng kamf he would “break the unjust terms of the treaty of versallies”. The memories of WW1 were still alive and Britain and France were disenchanted with the idea of using force to solve European disputes as they were economically. The feeling swept especially throughout Britain that the Treaty of Versailles had been too harsh, and Germany should be able to make some amendments to its more extreme elements.
The Treaty of Versailles was the peace settlement signed following the end of World War One. It was established by leaders of France, Britain and the United States of America at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. This treaty would ensure that Germany received the appropriate punishments for World War One. However, the fairness of the treaty was highly controversial. These terms included Germany having to pay reparations to the Allies, Germany having to accept the war guilt, the seizure of German territories and colonies to the allies, limits on German armed forces, and the establishment of the League of Nations.
Important figures in these negotiations included Georges Clemenceau (France) David Lloyd George (Britain), Vittorio Orlando (Italy), and Woodrow Wilson (United States). The Versailles Treaty was one of the products of the conference. The Germans believed that the treaty would be based on President Wilson’s Fourteen Points, which offered a framework for a just peace, and the hopes that any future international tension would be prevented. The Germans believed the Fourteen Points would have resulted in drastically less devastation to Germany if used in the treaty. However, the Big Four were determined to punish Germany for the war, and so they did.
This essay will look in particular at the Treaty of Versailles and will analyse the details of the Treaty outlining how it was the root of the crisis experienced by Germany and Europe at the beginning of the interwar period. It will also touch on how a national economic crisis filtered through to all levels of society. In the main this essay will ignore political justices which this Treaty tried to retribute and focus instead on the consequences of the Treaty for Germany and for Europe and its wisdom. To understand the crisis is best to begin with Woodrow Wilson’s ‘Fourteen Points’ speech on January 8, 1918, it was based around the topics which the foreign policy advisor, Edward House thought would be most prevalent should peace negotiations arise. On October 5, 1918 the German Government responded to this fourteen points and requested peace negotiations, and on November 5, 1918 the Armistice was signed with the conditions Germany would withdraw from any invaded lands, returning them, all that remained were the finer details of Wilson’s fourteen points to be ironed out.