Secure Base is when a caregiver provides a dependable and secure base for the child to explore the world. The third is "proximity maintenance". Proximity Maintenance is when the child strives to stay near the caregiver, which in turn keeps the child safe. And last is "separation distress". Separation Distress is when the child is separated from the caregiver; they will become distressed and upset.
Infants in biologically organize their attachment behaviors around the availability of their caregivers. When infants find caregivers to be available in times of need, they tend to develop expectations that caregivers will be there in the future of times needed in the future. Behaviorally, these infants then seek out the comfort they need (Sroufe, 1989) from caregivers with confident expectations that they will be soothed. Such infants are categorized as having secure attachments to caregivers. When caregivers are not responsive to infants’ needs or there are many different caregivers in an infants’ life, infants can develop an insecurity to bond because they cannot identify who the main caregiver is supposed
Attachment can be described using two theories, one being Bowlby’s attachment theory which is based on an evolutionary perspective. The theory suggests that evolution has produced a behaviour that is essential to survival. An infant that keeps close to their mother is more likely to survive. The traits that lead to that attachment will be naturally selected. Bowlby has the idea that attachment has evolved and it is innate as it increases the likelihood of survival and reproduction, he suggests that children are already born with this innate drive and that they were born to perform these behaviours and born to attain attachment.
Attachment Theory: Developing Attachment Relationships In psychology, peoples’ mental processes and behaviors are studied in order to assist in gaining a greater knowledge of individuals, the reasons behind their actions and the human mind. One of the most integral parts of the puzzle that impacts on development is early childhood attachment. Much research and theories have been dedicated to this particular area of psychology as it is believed that our experiences as young children help shape and mold our characteristics and interpersonal relationships later on in life. John Bowlby, also known as the founder of attachment theory, created a theory based on four phases of attachment. Likewise, Mary Ainsworth has contributed her “strange situation” in order to measure the quality of attachment and developed different categories that describe various levels of attachment between child and caregiver.
Explaining and Reflecting on the Development of Peer Relationships As I explain and reflect upon the development of peer relationships I am first going to discuss what I believe is the foundation for peer relationships… Attachments. Then move on to discuss aspects of these relationships and lightly talk about socialization’s role. One of the most vital aspects of development is a child’s attachment to their parents. Attachment is a connection or bond with a particular person. This type of bond is critical to an infant's development.
These relationships during childhood are likely to play an important part on how individuals develop through childhood and later life. Bowlby is a key figure in development of the of attachment theory. His theory suggests that the infant needs a secure base to explore from and return to. He defined a secure base as being a place where the infant can explore into the outside world and return to knowing that the mother figure will respond to the infant’s need for food, comfort and reassurance if distressed or fearful (Wood et. al., 2007).
The family life cycle theory is based on the idea that children must be separated from their family of origin in order to become physically and emotionally capable to think on their own and make independent decisions. It also is focused on the idea that change and development rely on crisis. During adolescents parents need to provide opportunities for their children to make some decisions on their own. Parents also need to accept their child’s wishes regarding a career choice and new intimate relationships; when this happens both the child and the parents can move on to a new stage of their lives. In this theory, three things must be done in order for an individual to reach this stage of their lives.
So, when an infant forms an attachment it is responding to the love and attention it has received, language comes from imitating the speech of others and cognitive development depends on the degree of stimulation in the environment and, more broadly, on the civilization within which the child is reared. Examples of an extreme nature positions in psychology include Bowlby's (1969) theory of attachment, which views the bond between mother and child as being an innate process that ensures survival”. (www.simplypsychology.org) According to this theory, it is the combination of societal and biological influences that affect behavior in our children. Since the brain is not fully developed at birth, the environment in which the child is exposed gives opportunity to further enhance or, consequently, inhibit many areas of development. Neurobiologist have found that early long term stress can actually change the brain functioning and, in turn, create an overly sensitive nervous system.
Safe Haven: If the child feels under threat or is fearful of a situation, he or she can return to the safety and reassurance of the caregiver. Secure Base: The caregiver gives the child a secure starting point to explore the outside world. Proximity Maintenance: The child endeavours to stay within a distance of safety to the caregiver. Separation Distress: Separation from the caregiver will cause the child to become anxious and distressed. Consequently I believe Mary Ainsworth enhanced Bowlby’s theories with her ‘Strange Situation’ (1978) study which in turn ‘revealed the profound effects of
According to Bowlby (1973), a child’s attachment pattern forms in relationship to the primary caregiver and is usually generalized to subsequent relationships. Individuals at significant risk for developing maladaptive attachment relationships are children who are abused or neglected by their caregiver. Early disruptions in the attachment relationship thwart the child’s ability to regulate arousal, develop secure relationships, and cope with stress. Not able to use caregivers as a secure base for exploration, children