Criminological Theories of Deviance Kristie Barela American Intercontinental University Criminological Theories of Deviance What are criminological theories? It is understood that criminology is the study of crime, but criminological theories provide us with an explanation of criminal behavior. These theories help one to understand why people commit crime. Social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory are just a few examples of sociological theories of crime that will be examined within this paper. Along with a brief description of the criminological theories, an attempt to show how they differ from one another and discussion of one strength and one weakness unique to each theory will be made.
Is rationale to assume that parental and family risk factors played a vital part in the life of a criminal, because they are a product of their surroundings. Understanding the mental process of a criminal behavior can assist on identify the problems such as antisocial behaviors. It identifies the individuals with their parents and other family members of the family. Taking a look at the parents and siblings will give researcher a different spectrum that can or may not voucher for the actions of the criminal, it brings all the issues about their past to surface. Parental and family risk factors effects and shapes the individual into the person that they are today.
Abstract This paper will explore and discuss the difference in opinion regarding crime and who should be held accountable for criminal activity. The views of social responsibility and social problems will be examined, along with the perspectives that each holds to justify their belief. Theories such as Determinate Sentencing that holds the value of social responsibility in response to crime, and also the Constructionist theory that places that blame on society as to why a person commits a crime. In the end I believe that Social/Individual responsibility is the most appropriate way to approach crime. Perspectives of Social Problems and Social Responsibility Within criminology there has been multiple theories suggested to explain the numerous motives behind why crime exists in our world.
An example of replication is law enforcement replicating a crime to see how the crime was committed. Verification is confirming or validating something. A lie detector test verifies whether someone is telling the truth or not. Theory is in criminal justice represents an attempt to develop plausible explanations of reality, which in this case are crime and the criminal justice system. In addition to one of the most intriguing aspects is the Hypothesis of the Criminal Justice system when referring to a crime being committed.
I intend to show how Agnew’s theory of strain describes the murders committed that are later determined to be caused by battered women’s syndrome. Robert Agnew’s General Strain Theory (GST) argues that strain or stress is the major source of criminal motivation. He expands upon Merton’s Anomie Theory of strain and stress to include several causes of strain or stress. Agnew categorizes 3 types of strain that produce deviance: the failure to achieve positively valued goals, the loss of positive stimuli, and the introduction of negative stimuli. There are several different actions that can be taken to correct the strain in order to curb deviance, including exercise, counseling, and advocacy programs (Agnew, 1992).
Offender profiling is the establishing of a hypothesis to identify a criminal via examining the evidence accumulated from a crime scene, this helps authorities narrow down searches for individuals with traits that correlate with signatures of the crime, one such noted profiler was Robert Ressler. In discussing the FBI approach to offender profiling, it is essential to draw focus on the methodology developed by Ressler and how it is utilised by authorities in addition to its strengths and limitations. In this context offender profiling is used when examining crimes involving serial murders of a sexual nature. The FBI profile emerges from stages, the process begins with what is termed the Assimilation Stage. Evidence of the crime scene is obtained, this would include photographs or an in person examining of the scene, a profile of the victim (including their pathology reports), witness statements and DNA analyses of the victim and the offender.
As well as a negative side that can lead to social disruption. Durkheim (1982 originally 1895) believed that a certain amount of crime was necessary for any society. Durkheim argued that a collective conscience which provides the framework for people to distinguish between acceptable behaviour and unacceptable behaviour was evident in society. However, Durkheim found that there were problems in society when these boundaries become unclear; Durkheim stated that the boundaries change over time. Therefore it is functional for crime to keep the people informed on the boundaries of their society.
Victims and Crime Evaluation Victims and Crime Evaluation From the dawn of human civilization aggression, violence, and mayhem have supported two positions pertaining to confrontation. The first position is the aggressors position. The second is the victims position. Within this writing the concept of the victim will be identified along with the history and significance of victims assistance programs. The purposes of victims assistance programs and the programs functions as applied to the criminal justice system will also be examined, dissected, and highlighted.
Pioneered by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck, the developmental theory of crime, integrates sociological, psychological, and economic elements into more multifarious developmental views of crime causality. In an effort to produce a more holistic view of a criminal career, which incorporates its inception, prolongation, and dissolution, social scientist have established developmental theories. When applied specifically to intimate partner violence these theories can provide insight into the behavioral patterns of abusers. Intimate partner violence (IPV), according to the CDC, is “a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner.” This abuse can be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or psychological actions or threats that influence the behavior of another person. Intimate partner violence is a serious problem particularly in the United States because on average, 24 people per minute are victims of rape, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner in the United States, which sums up to more than 12 million women and men over the course of a year.
Offender profiling is the collection of empirical data in order to compile a picture of the characteristics of those involved (Howitt 2002). Offender profiles aim to narrow down the range of possible suspects rather than solve the actual crime (Dwyer 2001). Holmes suggests that profiling is most useful when the crime scene reflects psychopathology e.g. sadistic assaults, and 90% of profiling attempts involve murder or rape. Holmes and Holmes 1996 suggested that there are three goals to offender profiling; social and psychological assessments of the offender, psychological evaluation of their belongings, and interviewing suggestions and strategies.