By reconstructing the past, the second method of inquiry can be used which is to discover or create new knowledge. It is the process of collecting data, evidence or any information that will lead to the arrest of a suspect. Both methods have similarities. It includes the who, (who was involved) the what, (what happened), the when (when did it happen), the where (where did it happen) and the how (how did it happen). An example of both methods combined will be when an investigator collects information from witness, evidence and data bases then use it to reconstruct the past.
Defining the degree of the crime scene is one of the most critical steps in recognition of the crime scene (Holden, 2006). This typically involves identifying the locale, which the crime might have taken place and any other items used by the perpetrators such as
These, however, must be proved appropriately to allow courts practice fairness in defenses. All criminal activities act within a law, which states the behavior allowed or disallowed by a state. Additionally, there must be an act performed to prove a crime. The American government, for instance, bases crime of acts rather than thoughts. Additionally, courts must gauge the intention of persons involved in criminal activities.
Criminal Justice Policy Process Amber Pickett AJS/582 February 4, 2013 Joseph Gutheinz Abstract This manuscript will describe the criminal justice policy process. The manuscript will also include the key actors in the criminal justice policy process, the steps involved in the criminal justice policy process, and suggestions to improve the criminal justice policy process. Criminal Justice Policy Process Crime control policies, protocols, standards, and guidelines are the efforts of the government to protect society from criminals by reducing crime through initiating policies to control criminal justice issues. The actors of the criminal justice policy process unite to determine what laws and policies can make society a safe place for everyone (Marion & Oliver, 2012). The criminal justice policy process reflects what is best for society as a whole and not what is best for individuals.
Criminal Profiling August 13, 2012 CJ230 Police operations and Administration Criminal Profiling Criminal profiling defines as the investigation of a crime with the hope of identifying the responsible party, based on crime scene analysis, investigative psychology and behavioral evidence analysis. Many claim that criminal profiling is a science or an art. Criminal profiling’s use helps law enforcement make positive evaluations. Behavioral scientists and criminologists use the criminal profiling technique to examine criminal behavior. In the future criminal profiling will go further to help investigations and help in the predictions for future actions of criminals.
Provide a critical response to the statement that “Criminology is the science of law- making, law- breaking, and law- enforcing” (Sherman, 2013:1) Lawrence Sherman defines criminology as the science of law- making, law- breaking, and law enforcing. This statement holds true to a large extent. A similar definition stressing both the theoretical and applied nature of a science of crime is the one formulated by Edwin H. Sutherland, according to which: “Criminology is the body of knowledge regarding crime as social phenomenon. It includes within its scope the process of making laws, of breaking laws, and of reacting toward the breaking of laws….the objectivity of criminology is the development of a body of general and verified principled and of other types of knowledge regarding this process of law, crime, and treatment or prevention” (The Florida State University, n.d.) Criminology should be more than law- making, law- breaking, and law enforcing. Criminological studies tend to be gender biased and focus largely on crimes of the powerless (street crimes).
Definition of Key Concepts 2.1 Criminal Profiling ( Hard evidence profiling) According to Turvey 1999, the process of inferring distinctive personality characteristics of individuals responsible for committing criminal acts has been commonly referred to as ‘criminal profiling.’ These include biographic details of the perpetrator, crime-scene analysis, and so on. 2.2 Criminological Profiling (Soft evidence profiling) According to Joubert, Hesselink & Marais 2003, criminological profiling is the assessment of criminal behaviour which includes assessing the victims’ credibility, motives & causes of the crime, modi operandi, personal & family background, post offence behaviour & appearances. 2.3 Risk Assessment The assessment of risk involves predicting how likely it is that the individual will in the future commit crime, or reoffend. 3. Main Views The main purpose of the profile is to investigate a crime in order to successfully apprehend the perpetrator, provide investigators with relevant leads & strategies & to help gain insight into the offenders state of mind before, during & after the commission of the crime, whereas the main objective of prediction is to identify the risk factors that are involved in reoffending &
DISCUSS THE PROBLEMS IN MEASURING AND DEFINING CRIME AND DEVIANCE. INTRODUCTION This paper will discuss the problems faced whilst trying to define and measure crime and deviance whilst also explaining the differences and relationship between crime and deviance. Criminologists have created means of measuring crime which this paper will explore and identify problems which will occur during the recording of crime and will explore influences on crime and crime statistics. DEFINING CRIME AND DEVIANCE Defining crime or deviance is diverse amongst the many different cultures, history and from one social context to another (new texts pg 138) which causes a big problem whilst defining and measuring crime or deviance as what is believed to be criminal or deviant behaviour in one society may be seen as legal or normal behaviour by another society. There are many theories relating to deviance and crime with each theory illustrating a different aspect of the procedure by which people break rules and are classed as deviants or criminals.
Research Process and Terminology According to Merriam-Webster.com (2012), “the collecting of information about a particular subject” is the definition of research. Terminology is defined as “the technical or special terms used in a business, art, science, or special subject ("," 2012). In the criminal justice field as with many others, the understanding, and use of new terminology is very important. New terminology and knowledge obtained will be useful in a variety of aspects throughout a career in criminal justice. Lacking proper terminology while conducting criminal justice research can be very detrimental to a person’s work, advancement, and career.