Dr. Ivan Van Sertima speaks of Christopher Columbus’ diary, which spoke of his many voyages and discoveries. After his second voyage, the Portuguese informed Columbus of Africans in large boats with merchandise sailing west of the Cape Verde islands. The Portuguese were aware of African navigation because they had been in Africa since 1415. Not only did the Portuguese tell Columbus of Africans but Natives in the Olmec civilization spoke of Africans as well. The Olmec civilization, was the first civilization established in the Americas.
Sub-Saharan Africa had much longer exposure to Islamic culture influences than to European cultural influences. Scholars and merchants learned to use the Arabic language to communicate with visiting North Africans and to read the Quran. Islamic beliefs and practices as well as Islamic legal and administrative systems were prominent in African trading cities on the southern edge of the Saharan and on the Swahili coast. During the three and a half centuries of contact between Europe and Africa before 1800, Africans yielded minimal territory to Europeans. Local African kings scrutinized the European trading posts that they permitted along the Gold and Slave Coasts and collected profitable rents and fees from these traders and merchants.
Chapter 20 Study Guide Vocabulary: 1. Factories - Portuguese trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce 2. El Mina - most important of early Portuguese trading factories in the forest zone of Africa. 3. Royal African Company - chartered in 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants; supplied African slaves to colonies Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia 4. triangular trade - commerce linking Africa, the new world colonies, and Europe; slaves carried to America for sugar, and tobacco transported to Europe 5.
He has critique and formulated historical theories and methodologies on the African contact. To show and prove that there were contacts between the people of the Atlantic world and Africa before the coming of Columbus; researches have based their arguments on two main pillars of evidence. In this essay it is my aim to prove that the West Africans were in the Americas before Columbus and to provide credible data to prove this notion. Historian scholars and researchers such as Ivan Van Sertima, Leo Wiener, and Peter DeRoo among others have pointed to the importance of West Africa in the Early World History. They have produced credible arguments and evidence to support the contact between the Atlantic world and West Africa before 1492.
West Africans looked to the Americas as a source of trade, commerce, a place to settle and a place to build new civilizations. The History of African civilization and Africans in Latin America is an important beginning to African American’s because; in world history these two regions were the first areas of the Americas to be populated by African immigrants and we’re also the first people to become African Americans. Africa has been portrayed in popular culture and academic discourse as a continent without history. Africa has history that was once overlooked but, as historians went back to reanalyze African history, they have represented the fact that Africa has changed over time, and that it has been a place of diverse groups of people throughout a long and rich history. Africa, in all of its regions, has a rich, diverse, and dynamic history.
This dissertation focuses on the reaction to colonialism from 1900 to 1964 in Northern Rhodesia. It will begin by giving a brief general historical review of colonialism in Africa, details of the racial attitudes of the British, then proceeds to discuss their respective political administration and finally the reaction of the natives to colonialism. Between the 1870s and 1900s, Africa faced heavy European imperialist aggression, diplomatic pressures, military invasions, and eventual conquest and colonization. At the same time, African societies put up various forms of resistance against the attempt to colonize their countries and impose foreign domination. By the early twentieth century, however, much of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, had been colonized by European powers.
In chapter 17, Prelude to the European conquest of Africa, British abolitionists create a colony called Freetown were freed African slaves settled. It was a safe haven for freed slaves. This was sort of a shift from what Europeans originally used Africa for, which was the trading of slaves and gold. Everything Europeans needed was accessible on the Western coast of Africa, resulting in the interior to rarely be ventured. One man who argued that slavery was inefficient was Scottish philosopher Adam Smith.
Egypt & Mesopotamia Mesopotamia was a continent in Africa. It’s between the Persian Gulf and the Medertian Sea, surrounding the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Egypt is also a continent in Africa it is near the Nile River. Mesopotamia and Egypt were different in terms of geography because Egypt’s geography had Mesoamerica the Tigris, and Euphrates rivers and the Nile River, as well as annual Nile flooding. On the other hand Mesopotamia’s geography had Mesopotamia the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and river valleys.
THE CONCEPT OF NEOCOLONIALISM Neocolonialism is a concept derived from colonialism; and there is some theoretical consensus concerning its development. Scholars in postcolonial studies like Robert Young, Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin agree that inspite of the looseness of the term, neocolonialism originated with Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana's first post-independence president. The term neocolonialism first saw widespread use, particularly in reference to Africa, soon after the process of decolonization which followed a struggle by many national independence movements in the colonies following World War II. Upon gaining independence, some national leaders and opposition groups argued that their countries were being subjected to a new form of colonialism, waged by the former colonial powers and other developed nations. Kwame Nkrumah, who in 1957 became leader of newly independent