Max Bruckner History 203 Makimura Book Review #2 The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth Century Atlantic Odyssey by Randy Sparks The largest forced migration in human history, the African Slave Trade, has left little documentation records for historians to work from. Given the long lasting historical repercussions of the estimated eleven million African captives forced to cross the Atlantic from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century, we know amazingly little about the individual experiences of the horrific middle passage. Randy Sparks’s book corrects this silence. It tells the remarkable story of two African princes enslaved at Old Calabar in the Bight of Biafra, taken first to the Caribbean and then shipped to Virginia. They then escaped to England where they sued for their freedom, and finally made their way back to Old Calabar.
During the Slave Trade, many slaves came from different slave ports: Eastern Africa, Guinea Coast, Southern Africa, Western Sudan, and Central Sudan. The Middle Passage was used to describe slave trade from Africa to America. Approximately 10 million slaves came to America between 1603 and 1863. Some people also call it the Triangular Trade, because the ships traveled on ways that formed a shape of a triangle. The trips from these different countries to America were tremendously awful.
Royal African Company - chartered in 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants; supplied African slaves to colonies Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia 4. triangular trade - commerce linking Africa, the new world colonies, and Europe; slaves carried to America for sugar, and tobacco transported to Europe 5. Asante - established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi;
The ways in which sub-Saharan Africans were establishing new contacts with Europe paralleled their much older pattern of relations with the Islamic world. There were striking similarities and differences in Africans’ political, commercial, and cultural interactions with these two external influences between 1500 and 1800. Through Africa’s close proximity to the Middle East and Africa’s triangle trade with the Europeans and European influenced Americas, the customs, traditions and beliefs of many indigenous Africans changed and were replaced. Although both regions justified slavery, the Islamic and European concepts of slave work and obligation differed considerably. While Africa placed an essential role in the Atlantic and Islamic trading
Running Head: SLAVERY’S EMERGING HISTORY Slavery’s Emerging History Rebecca J. Brunson Western Governors University Abstract I am going to discuss in my paper, the three main economic reasons for slavery. The first being the growing plantations that emerged in the South. Crops such as tobacco, rice, and more importantly, cotton. The second reason I will discuss is the triangular trade. I will mention how it worked what the outcome of it was.
"Chained together by their hands and feet, the slaves had little room to move." It has been estimated that only about half of the slaves taken from Africa became effective workers in the Americas. A large number of slaves died on the journey from diseases such as smallpox and dysentery. Others committed suicide by refusing to eat. Many of the slaves were crippled for life as a consequence of the way they were chained up on the
Conditions on America-bound slave ships were a disgrace. Slaves were chained to the floors in spaces no bigger than a coffin. They laid in their own excrement not being able to move. Many times the sailors came to find the slaves in suffocation, dead, and trying to kill others for a desperate breath. One of three blacks died overseas.
The Africans were brought here into filthy dark and were packed onto the ships also known as the “middle passage”. The middle passage was a long journey for the Americans and were chained in bowels of slave ships and was supplied with little food and water. Those who died on the route there were thrown overboard. When
It covered the area from the islands of Goree Saint Louis, in present Senegal, to Quelimane, in current mozambique. It is necessary to be more specific and to speak of the trade in slaves not in general continent-wide terms but rather with reference to the varying impact on several regions. This commerce had important effects on the lives of African people and on African societies situated in diverse regions such as Senegambia, Sierra Leona, West-central Africa, South east Africa, The Bight of Benin, the Gold Coast and the Bight of Biafra. While the consequences of the trade on enslaved africans communities have been documented and supported by archival data, the effects on non-slaved africans communities remain largely unknown.. Overall, the trade brought about unceasing insecurities, economic disorder, and political chaos in the African continent.