For many of you the notion of deliberately cauising pain to yourself and putting yourself in serious danger is baffling. However for others it may make more sense. Krysten, who has been diagnosed with depression said, “I remember starting out small, wanting to see how much I could take” Tanya, who is fifteen, said her friends did it and thought it must do something for them so once when she “felt down” she tried it. However I think it is significant that a year eleven pupil said to me, “I feel sorry that some people would rather feel pain than feel nothing!” Yet, to end feelings of numbness is not the only reason for self-harm. Motivations vary from distraction from emotional pain or
For example, the idea that by keeping everything abnormally clean and organised the thought that something negative will happen to you will be prevented. As these thoughts are recurring and repetitive, the compulsions that follow them are also. In order to be clinically diagnosed with OCD, these symptoms have to have been persistent for a minimum of two weeks and the other symptoms from other disorders from the Axis ll must be absent. A strength of the classification and diagnosis of OCD is that it has a very high inter-rater reliability. In the context of OCD, this measures the extent to which two different clinicians agree on the diagnosis of the same patient.
Treatment During an episode of schizophrenia, you may need to stay in the hospital for safety reasons. MEDICATIONS Antipsychotic medications are the most effective treatment for schizophrenia. They change the balance of chemicals in the brain and can help control symptoms/ These medications are usually helpful, but they can cause side effects. Many of these side effects can be improved, and should not prevent people from seeking treatment for this serious condition. Common side effects from antipsychotics may include: •Sleepiness (sedation) •Dizziness •Weight gain •Increased chance of diabetes and high cholesterol •Feelings of restlessness or "jitters" •Slowed movements •Tremor Long-term use of antipsychotic medications may increase your risk for a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia.
When a person suffers with psychological distress, the way in which they interpret situations becomes skewed, which in turn has a negative impact on the actions they take. CBT aims to help people become aware of when they make negative interpretations, and of behavioral patterns which reinforce the distorted thinking. Cognitive Therapy helps people to develop alternative ways of thinking and behaving which reduce the psychological distress. Cognitive behavioral Therapy is, in fact, an umbrella term for many different therapies that share some common elements. Two of the earliest forms of Cognitive behavioral Therapy were Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), developed by Albert Ellis in the 1950s, and Cognitive Therapy, developed by Aaron T. Beck in the 1960s.
Now they are older and may need blood tests, maybe insulin dependent diabetic - they would need psychoanalysis in the day care centre to get over this phobia We need to be careful not to make assumptions about services users – their behaviour may be due to earlier childhood experiences. It is important to understand this and not to label them (stereotype them). Instead we should be recognising this and providing a support plan. Fixation at any of the psychosexual stages can result in extreme behaviours associated with that stage in adulthood – day care centres may find these behaviours hard to manage, There are now courses in day care centres for staff called
In the treatment for alcohol and drug dependence, the goal of cognitive behavioral therapy is to teach the person to recognize situations in which they are most likely to drink or use drugs, avoid these circumstances if possible, and cope with other problems and behaviors which may lead to their substance abuse. Depression There is a very close relationship between depression and substance abuse in adults. The two conditions are highly comorbid, which is to say that they occur together in an extremely high percentage of individuals. There are a number of different ways that this occurs. Substance abuse can cause depression and depression can cause substance abuse.
PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES & KEY CONCEPTS Aaron T. Beck developed his approach known as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy as a result of his work and observations with depressed clients. C.B.T. is based on fundamental assumptions that our thoughts can and do determine how we feel and behave in relation to events in our everyday lives and our environment. Beck contends that psychological problems or dysfunctional behaviour can occur as a result of faulty or distorted thinking and through engaging and employing C.B.T. techniques we can change or modify the way we think, to cause us to feel and act better even if our external situations and events do not change.
The theory may have some validity in its basis but the idea that it is the all-encompassing answer to mental health problems and inappropriate behaviors encourages the belief that the theory has some serious errors. Changing negative thoughts to positive thoughts can be a powerful and effective tool of change Backus refers to this change as “truth”. Changing misbeliefs to “truth” may be effective for an individual who has a normal thought process and is able to master some of the techniques prescribed in this theory. Yet, the idea of telling a clinically depressed, schizophrenic, or an obsessive-compulsive person to use the power of thought alone to change their action or state of being seems unrealistic. Backus seems to ignore the idea that behavior development is influenced by more than thought alone.
Anticipatory stress is another factor this paper will focus on as it reduces one’s decision-making ability. Regarding the link between stress and its effects on the body, researchers have discovered a peptide located in the brain called orexin (hypocretin) that, with proper testing, could soon provide a treatment for stress and depression. Researchers began studying orexin further when they discovered the substantial link between the systems affected by stress and those affected by the orexin system. “The relationship between orexin and stress is noteworthy, given that chronic stress is a reliable predictor of depression, and may be necessary for establishment of the disorder.” (Arendt, 2013). Stress serves as an activator to orexin neurons in the hypothalamus, but orexinergic receptors are located throughout the brain.
Freud’s psychodynamic theory claims that the mind is divided into three parts. The Ego, or self, needs to balance the subconscious demands of the Id (guided by the pleasure principle and seeking instant gratification) and the Superego (the sense of right and wrong – the conscience). Abnormality can be caused by an imbalance between these, e.g. an overly strong Superego could lead to anxiety. The Ego needs to defend itself from the stress caused, and the ‘defence mechanisms’ is uses can be healthy or unhealthy.