Operant conditioning suggests that behaviours can be changed or learned by the reinforcement whether it is positive reward or negative punishment. If the person gets a positive reinforcement of a certain behaviour then they are more likely to do it again however if they have a negative reinforcement then they would not repeat it again. Reinforcement is the most important part of the behaviourist approach. A paediatric nurse in a healthcare setting provides reinforcement at each step of the process. For example, when a child is having to get a blood test done and is afraid and refusing to do, the nurse will look for a positive behaviour and then gives the patient immediate reinforcement by saying, “you are such a big boy” or “you did an excellent job”.
if the mother smokes, drinks or abuses drugs the baby could be harmed at this time or even if the maternal anxiety & stress could influence development. Infections that the mother may pick up such as rubella can create difficulties for the developing baby. A child’s development can also be influenced by when their born and during the birth. Some babies are born prematurely and this can play a part in their later development, this is one reason premature babies progress is measured according to the date they were due to be born rather than their actual birth date. External factors Poverty, this affects children and their families in a variety of ways for example, education: lack of opportunities can affect life outcomes, children from low-income families are less likely to do well academically due to the fact of potential of reduced access to quality education and the best schools as well as limited access to a variety of books, equipment plus internet.
It is also important to know for prevention as well. Some adult children will isolate, engage in negative activities, find themselves in unhealthy abusive relationships or become alcoholic themselves. I really believe if I could put what I learn to use in prevention, and support then it would be better to stop the cycle of dysfunction that addiction can
This assumption can help to explain how traumatic childhood events can lead to further psychological issues as adults. In some cases people may be consciously unaware of early experiences that caused discomfort due to the development of defence mechanisms. Defence mechanisms are a way in which the mind can cope with distressful experiences; it does this by repressing the memories so that even
Screening tests for depression can be helpful in making the diagnosis. Before diagnosing depression, your health care professional needs to rule out medical conditions that can mimic symptoms of depression. Treatment Medicines that you take for other medical conditions can start or increase depression. You may need to change prescriptions. Do not change or stop taking any of your medications without consulting your doctor.
If there were any recent changes in the home the parents should share this information with the psychiatrist. The manner in which the parents handle the tantrums may not be appropriate for the behavior that Clara is exhibiting or age appropriate; it is also possible that the parents are not effectively using techniques to improve or change the behavior. The parents might also give permission for the school to share information about the child’s behavior, and their methods for dealing with the behaviors.(Comer.(2011)). During the
Groups that have a higher risk of becoming vulnerable include, children, people with learning and physical disabilities, people suffering with mental health problems, chronically ill people and the elderly. Age concern (1986) defines vulnerability in the elderly as ‘people in need of some support, help and/or advice in order to prevent personal or social deterioration or breakdown. Without this their level of dependency on others or their ability to manage their lives as they wish, might deteriorate to the point of necessitating their removal to institutional care, which is not their preferred option and might otherwise be prevented or postponed (page 11).’ This statement is proven in my clinical experience. Whilst on placement on a busy acute medical ward, at a local hospital, I helped to care for an elderly lady, whom I shall refer to as Mrs Berry. Mrs Berry was 87 and had been admitted to hospital following a fall
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER IN KIDS (www.helpguide.com) I believe that if I could create a risk programs it can help parents know if their child really does have ADHD. Today there are some many students that are being missed diagnosed. This program can help ensure parents that if their child l has ADHD there is a program that is meeting for them and they can get help and information. My nephew has ADHD and I know that my sister has trouble with dealing with him and his side effects. I know that if she had a program like this around she could ask question on why he acts the way he dose after the medicine wears off.
When experiencing “pain”, one reassesses and rebuilds, or takes a pill to cover it up. With depression, there is a pressure in society to take antidepressants for a quick-fix because so many people around us have or are taking them. With ADD/ADHA, she does confess however, that medication can help families by removing the blame and helping a child’s undesirable behavior. She also believes that teachers/schools pressure children to take Ritalin to keep order in the classroom, while the school systems should reassess their teaching practices.
Risk assessments are also designed to manage and identify areas of concern, either to the patient or health professional’s involved in the care of the patient. Areas of risk assessment may include suicide or self harm, absconding, aggression or violence, substance use, vulnerabilities and neglect, non adherence or compliance. These areas of assessment may include past risk and current risk factors (Edward, Munro, Robins & Welch, 2011). Risk assessment of the patient is important but also risk towards others. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia are more opportunistic in behaving aggressively or violently towards co-patients and/or staff, which is why implementation of such assessment tools have been put in place (Langan, 2008).