Compared with other non-precious metals, copper wires can handle a wider load of electrical power, allowing it to use less insulation and armoring. They have high resistance to heat, eliminating most issues of overloading. Copper wires are also resistant to corrosion. Although patina, a tarnish produced by oxidation, might be present, the material will not lose functionality. Malleability and Ductility Copper has a high ductility, allowing wires thinner than human hair strands.
Also, the more stable the free radical that is left behind, the weaker its C-H bond strength will be. The difference between the bromine and chlorine product ratios can be partially explained by the Hammond postulate, which states that species with similar energy levels also have more similar structures and react more quickly and less selectively. In the experiment, five different hydrocarbons were tested to measure the rate of reaction with the addition of bromine. Two trials were done, one with the test tubes containing the hydrocarbons and added bromine sitting directly under a lamp, and another with the test tubes in a closed, dark space. Both trials contained a
Natural gas also isn’t high in nitrogen oxide or sulfur dioxide. It is more environmentally friendly to extract natural gas than burn coal. Hydraulic fracturing is the use of fluid and material to create or restore small fractures in a formation in order to stimulate production from new and existing oil and gas wells. This creates paths that increase
One of the biggest disadvantages is not being able to make connections as easy as the copper. Fiber optic cables have a core as fine as a human hair, making it extremely difficult to splice. Copper cables are obviously not going to be around forever with the fiber optics being so futuristic, but they still have advantages over the fiber. Copper is very easy to work with. When making connections it is so much easier to splice the copper cable than it would be for the fiber.
This explanation can be demonstrated in table 3 also because the results of the reactions demonstrates that chloride reacted more by the color of the product compared to the color of chloride in the mineral oil. Also it also demonstrates that iodine is the weakest oxidizing agent because the results show that iodide didn’t change much from the color that it showed in the mineral oil. In example 6 we have shown the activity series for the halogens used in this
Copper wiring is flexible when installing so incase a technician has to bend it around a wall or at a certain angle to reach it to an end point, the cable can handle it. Also equipment to support copper wiring is relatively inexpensive to run. The weaknesses to copper wiring would be that it is susceptible to electromagnetic inference (EMI) from outside forces and also has a higher rate of corrosion over time by oxidation. Fiber optic cabling is a more expensive option for communications. Fiber optic cabling is immune to EMI and other noise interferences and therefore the chance of signal loss is greatly reduced.
The bulbs create less heat during use, which can lead to lower cooling costs and its green friendly, decreases amount of energy used by 5%. Laser Transmitter Laser transmitter have a much smaller and tighter light input and can be easily coupled to single mode fibers, this makes the laser transmitter perfect for longer distances and high speed links. Laser has a high bandwidth capability some are used up to 10GHz or 10Gbps this makes Laser transmitters more expensive. Laser Transmitters have a narrow spectral output that suffers very little chromatic dispersion. Laser Transmitters avoid interference because the frequencies between the lasers have narrow beams that are less likely to have significant side lobes that could introduce interference.
Fiber In the comparison between fiber and copper fiber, costs of the fiber cable has come down quite a bit. The cable itself has become easier to install as well since the invention of the flexible fiber which makes it easier to pull the cable through places. The flexible fiber has not become widely used vs. copper yet due to the need for the costs to come down for the connections, the NIC’s. the hub’s, routers and switches. Fiber Advantages The following advantages of fiber over other cabling systems are: (Oliviero 250) Immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), higher data rates, longer maximum distances, and better security.
Even though the results under hexane and toluene are similar, the distances of original mixture, first and second fraction are different from hexane and toluene solvent because they have different polarity. As first fraction containing fluorene, which is much non-polar than fluoreone, fluorene in first fraction is much easier to carry by the moving non-polar solvent. Thurs, as the more non-polar the solvent is the longer distance that fluorene will move. Since hexane has larger non-polar carbon-hydrogen single bond groups than toluene, it is much non-polar than toluene. As the result of this, it can explain why the distance of fluorine in hexane is longer (1.3 cm) than the one in toluene (0.5 cm) and due to less non polar toluene has.
The chief advantage of hydro systems is it costs a lot less than other sources of energy. Hydroelectric plants are immune to price increases for fossil fuels and do not require imported fuel. On the other hand as hydroelectricity is increased petroleum/oil should be decreased. Hydroelectric plants generally have small to none emissions of carbon dioxide and methane due to reservoir emissions, and emit other pollutants associated with combustion. Hydroelectric plants may be able to reshape water flows to more closely match daily and seasonal system energy demands.