It effects the transfer of the impulse to another nerve strand, a muscle strand, or another structure. They lead signals between nerve cells, called “neurons.” Neurotransmitters are chemicals that live inside brain cells. The brain uses neurotransmitters to tell your heart to beat, your lungs to breathe, and your stomach to digest. They can also affect mood, sleep, concentration, weight, and can cause contrary symptoms when they are out of stability. There are many different types of neurotransmitters.
Hormones, which are chemical messengers, transfer information from one gland to another for important body functions. When the receptor is stimulated, the cell responds to the hormone in specific ways. Endocrine hormones are secreted into the bloodstream, while exocrine hormones are secreted into a duct and go through paracrine signaling. Hormones have many different effects on the body such as mood swings, metabolism regulation, control of the reproductive system, hunger cravings and many others. The glands which are involved in the endocrine system
According to current research the part of the brain that responds when individuals are given two conflicting signals is known as the anterior cingulate. Its function thought processes and emotional responses. It’s located between the frontal portion sides left and right. By using the stroop effect psychologists have been able to test the effects found in the cognitive due to attention fatigue. The other purpose of the stroop effect is that it shows the dominations of some parts of the brain and how functional areas are dominated.
Understand the process and experience of dementia Task A Questions and Answers 1 For each of the following forms of dementia, describe: • How the brain is affected • The symptoms an individual might experience. a) Alzheimer’s disease The affects of Alzheimer’s disease on the brain are;- The brain cortex shrivels up this damages the areas involved in thinking, planning and remembering, Shrinkage is especially severe in the hippocampus, this is the area of the cortex that plays a key role in formation of new memories, as the cortex continues to shrivel the Ventricles, which are fluid filled spaces within the brain grow larger. As the above process continues brain cells and nerves are killed off this causes changes to the chemistry of the brain, which results in the number of neurotransmitters being reduced and levels of acetylcholine falling. Abnormal clusters of protein fragments, which are called Plaques, build up in between nerve cells. These Plaques are formed as protein pieces, which are called beta-amyloid, clump together, (Beta-amyloid is formed from a larger protein which is found in the fatty membrane surrounding nerve cells).
In biological factors, the amygdala comes out to be important in brain’s emotional circuit. It plays an important role in emotional memories. Some studies had specified that stress hormones such as adrenaline are released when strong emotions are bringing to mind. LeDoux in The Emotional Brain (1999) describes two biological paths of emotions in the brain. The short route is the first one which goes from thalamus to amygdala, the long route is the second one that passes through the neocortex and hippocampus before it comes out as an emotional reaction.
Generally, this type of amnesia is temporary, and gradually restoration of memory is very common. The areas of the brain that are impaired in retrograde amnesia, the hippocampus, the temporal lobe, and the prefrontal cortex, are associated with primarily declarative and episodic memory. Apparently what occurs is that the brains consolidation process is disrupted; therefore, that area of the brain loses memory of events that were not fully stored. In contrast, anterograde amnesia refers to the loss of memory from the time of the injury, or illness, forward. For example, a victim in an accident resulting in head injury may have difficulty remembering anything new.
Damage to these areas of the brain can change a person’s behaviour for example damage to the frontal lobe can affect personality. Another assumption of the biological approach is behaviour can be explained in terms of hormones. Hormones regulate different behaviours. Hormones are biochemical substances that are produced by endocrine glands such as pituitary glands and adrenal glands. Hormones are transported through the blood stream to various organs and tissues.
While the SNS directs the movements of the skeletal muscles, the ANS regulates involuntary processes such as the heart beating, breathing, blood pressure, and blood sugar level. When compared to other animals’ brains, the human brain is a more complex central nervous system. The reason for this is due to the proficiency of the human brain to continuously develop both in the structure and function of numerous cells in it as a responsive mechanism towards new incoming information, experiences, and even shock, which is also known as brain plasticity. (Sanders
It has widespread connections with the rest of the forebrain and the midbrain. Partly through nerves and partly through hypothalamic hormones, the hypothalamus conveys messages to the pituitary gland, altering its release of hormones (Kalat, 2003). According to “American Accreditation Health Commission,” The hypothalamus is responsible for certain metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system. It synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones, often called hypothalamic-releasing hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian cycle.
A conclusion will then be drawn based on the discussion. The brain is an essential organ of the body. It is the control center for all the body’s activities, such as walking, talking, swallowing, breathing taste, smell and heart beat. The brain also controls our thinking functions, our intellectual activities as well as our emotions. Hemispheric specialization refers to the dominance of one hemisphere of the brain in specific functions, such as language, emotions, motor control and so on ( Feldman, 2009).