TASK 1 (P1/M1) outline biological and psychological explanations for mental disorders. there are many biological and psychological explanations to explain the reasons behind mental disorders. here below are a few reasons/explanations for mental disorders: BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS: · genetics: : Many mental illnesses run in families, suggesting that people who have a family member with a mental illness are more likely to develop one themselves. · infections: Certain infections have been linked to brain damage and the development of mental illness or the worsening of its symptoms[->0]. · brain defects or injury: Defects in or injury to certain areas of the brain have also been linked to some mental illnesses.
Parkinson’s disease; the brain changes caused by Parkinson’s disease begin in a region that plays a key role in movement. As the brain changes, the disease will begin to affect mental functions, including memory and the ability to pay attention, make sound judgements and plan steps needed to complete a task. Parkinson’s disease is a fairly common neurological disorder in older adults, estimated to affect nearly 2% of those over 65. Huntington’s disease; this disease is a progressive brain disorder caused by a single defective gene on chromosome 4. Symptoms of the disease include abnormal involuntary movements, a severe decline in thinking and reasoning skills, irritability, depression and mood changes.
Cushing’s disease is a condition where the pituitary gland releases too much adrenocorticotropic (ACTH). Those who have Cushing’s disease have too much ACTH. ACTH stimulates the production and release of cortisol, Too much ACTH means too much cortisol. Cushing’s disease is caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland. Symptoms of Cushing’s disease include upper body obesity, round, red full face, acne, purple marks called striae, thin skin with easy bruising, backache, bone pain, bone thinning, weak muscles, hair growth on women, irregular menstrual cycle,
Patients with drug induced lupus have symptoms that affect the joints, heart and lungs. Neonatal Lupus occurs with antibodies cross the placenta in pregnancy from the mother to the child. Children that are born to women who test positive for the antibody SSA/RO are at greater risk of developing lupus, although this occurring is rare. The children who do end up with neonatal lupus will see symptoms like skin rashes and even liver underdevelopment. There is an even rarer chance that they could develop a life-threating heart condition called congenital heart block or
There is a challenge predicting which moles or tumors will metastasize, partly because of the cell’s high ability to move spontaneously and actively and also due to the plastic nature of melanocytes. A melanoma can also be formed from existing mole on the body. If this melanoma metastasizes to other parts of the body, it can be fatal for the patient 2. The different levels of a melanoma refer to the extent of the cancer. Tumor thickness, melanoma cell location, and whether the melanoma cells have metastasized all play a role in determining the stage of melanoma.
Canavan disease is rare genetic neurological disorder characterized by the spongy degeneration of the white matter in the brain. Affected infants may appear normal at birth, but usually develop symptoms between 3-6 months of age. Symptoms may include an abnormally large head (macrocephaly), lack of head control, severely diminished muscle tone resulting in "floppiness," and delays in reaching developmental milestones such as independent sitting and walking. Most affected children develop life-threatening complications by 10 years of age. Canavan disease occurs because of mutations in the aspartoacylase (ASPA) gene that affects the breakdown (metabolism) of the N-acetylaspartic acid (NNA).
It also regulates emotions and is a part of the cerebral cortex that deals with smell. During Alzheimer’s disease the hippocampus and thalamus shrink in size. The thalamus is located in the center of the brain, bellow the corpus callosum. The hypothalamus controls major hormone releases, food and water ingestion, temperature regulation, sexual behavior/reproduction, the body’s biological clock, stress and emotional response. The hypothalamus is usually affected early by AD.
Hyperthyroidism speeds up the body’s metabolism which in turn makes the body have a significant weight loss, a weird heartbeat, sweating profusely, and nervousness. This disease can also come from other types of problems, but to know if it is Hyperthyroidism, it will have to have more than a few of the diseases. Other types of problems include tremors, goiters, and medications can cover any of the signs of the causes (Hormone). To figure out if there is an overactive thyroid (Hyperthyroidism), doctors have the patients take a few
The ACS goes on to say that, Cancers of the pancreas, for example, usually doesn’t cause symptoms until they grow large enough to press on nearby nerves or organs (this causes back or belly pain). Others may grow around the bile duct and block the flow of bile. This causes the eyes and skin to look yellow (jaundice). By the time a pancreatic cancer causes signs or symptoms like these, it’s usually in an advanced stage. This means it has grown and spread beyond the place it started – the pancreas
It is caused by filariasis or podoconiosis. Sign & Symptoms • NINDS states that sometimes the earliest symptoms are unusual skin growths, but people can feel varying symptoms because tumors too small to see are pressing down on nerves. These tumors can cause symptoms such as tinnitus, which is the perception of sound in the ears or head; vision problems; balance problems; numbness on the face; and headaches. Symptoms NF-1 • According to Neurofibromatosis, Inc., symptoms of NF-1 include at least six coffee-colored spots at least 1.5 cm long in adults (0.5 cm in children), freckling in the groin or armpits, two or more large skin growths called neurofibromas, a tumor around or inside one eye or both eyes (especially in the iris), a bony growth, or other growing deformities of the skeleton. Symptoms NF-2 • Symptoms of NF-2 vary widely for each