The discount rate, in turn, directly affects the rates at which banks can lend money to its customers. When the Fed lowers the rate, it tends to have the effect of increasing consumer demand for money, since consumers are able to borrow money from banks at lower rates. The second way is by adjusting reserve ratios. The reserve ratio is the amount of cash banks most keep on hand in relation to the amount of money they loan out to consumers. When the Fed lowers the reserve ratio, it means that banks are able to loan out more money to its customers since they need to keep fewer dollars in cash reserves relative to the amount of money they lend out.
This would increase the costs and result in the firms passing on the costs to the consumers, this would increase the prices of the goods causing negative externalities and discourage them from being bought. If there is an over production in the goods due to negative externalities, it means (s) has shifted to (s1). Which results in too many goods being supplied out to the public. The prices are also very low which makes it easier for them to buy goods, especially those with lower income. At the point the social cost [s1] is not taken into account only the private cost is.
In 2000 revenues exceeded expenditures, however the government chose to lower taxes and increase spending; opposite of economic theory. This paid off following the 911 attacks making the anticipated recession the shortest to date. The United States deficits are funded by the selling of bonds. If buyers are unwilling to buy these bonds, the central banks buy them. Because these loans are IOUs, they can be offset by printing more money.
To increase their taxes would be appropriate and this would be stream lining taxes at a time when the economy needs a boost. The Keynesian economists would look at government spending as a means for the government to stop the little growth the economy has had and is to have. The government spending would make it so the people would not have the money to spend within the states and they would have to go without needs and desires. This in turn would be the money that could be used within the economy.
“The net export effect of expansionary monetary policy will be in the same direction as the monetary policy effect”.1 Recommended Course of Action Although both fiscal policy and monetary policy prove to have beneficial effects on an economy during a contractionary period, we believe that the government should use a combination of both policies…… - The money supply may be ineffective, but in the end people want to make sure that they will have money to save up in case of emergencies. There is no change in investment spending meaning little change in aggregate demand. - Further to this, the fiscal policy may be ineffective, as the extensive “time lags” may dig us deeper, creating a depression. - To what extent?? ?
Monetary Policy Aaron Ashburn MMPBL/501 Feb-21, 2011 Dr. George Sharghi Introduction There is a consensus among analysts regarding the ability of economist’s to accurately forecast inflation, and consequently it appears that the relationship between real economic activity and inflation is ambiguous. It is the Fed's job to do what it can to reduce unemployment in order for the economy to sustain and to make sure that inflation returns to a level more consistent with its mandate. The central focus of U.S. monetary policy is price stability. Thanks to its control of money markets and banks, the Fed influences interest rates, asset prices, and credit flows throughout the financial system. To help attain inflation goals the Federal
Individuals are losing jobs and the government have to spend more money of benefits. They collected back less from taxes and VAT. Businesses are cutting back on productions but for some customers is good if they have money because the prices are falling as well as inflation. At the boom stage the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) are the values of
If this persist long enough it can cause people to revolt against their government and can lead into wars. Other effects of hyperinflation are the relocation of wealth from the public to the government. Once people lose faith in the value of money they will begin to trade goods and services instead of directly purchasing good and services with the country’s currency. During this time interest rates will lower, which will reduce the value of money even more. To stop hyperinflation a government needs to restore confidence in the countries budget system and balance their budget.
If the government cut taxes or increases transfer payments such as unemployment insurance and food stamps this helps to offset the decrease in household income. Additionally, when government cuts corporate taxes, it helps prevent businesses from cutting expenses as much as they would during a recession. Therefore, an increased federal budget deficit can help stabilize an economy for as households’ disposable income rises they will spend more. Fortunately, mechanisms such as automatic stabilizers are in place to neutralize the ups and downs of the economy without having to
I don’t know what to say, and I have no idea what the US economy was to do. The stimulus package seems like a good idea, but no president seems to use it correctly. If the government just stands back, then less people would use banks much less when the government is so far in debt. As they say in the end: “The government can save the banks, but who will save the