Assess the importance of school factors such as racism and pupils’ responses to racism in creating ethnic differences in educational achievement The differences in educational attainment between different groups of pupils have been a major focus of much sociological research. These differences can often be seen to be largely due to different social class, but also gender or ethnicity. Social class is the most significant and dominant factor when looking at these differences, but ethnicity also has a relative impact on educational achievement Education has a key role to play in eradicating racism and valuing diversity and it a responsibility for all educational establishments, including those with few or no ethnic minority pupils. Promoting racial equality demands a whole school approach and commitment from all those who are involved in the life and work of their school. Racism is linked to the educational achievement of minority ethnic groups, however the connections are complex.
In the reading, “Still Separate, Still Unequal,” by Jonathan Kozol, Kozol discusses the issues with Brown verses Board of Education. Education was to be equal for all rather than different schools for blacks and whites. Many schools in the country try to acknowledge themselves as diverse. In reality, the schools that promote diverse backgrounds are mainly made up of one ethnic group. Statistics show that more than three fourths of children enrolled in certain city school systems are black or Hispanic.
While Payne argues that there is a culture of poverty, Gorski states that, rather than a culture of poverty being existent, classism is that which permeates the classrooms and schools. Payne believes that impoverished students live by different rules and values than students of the middle and upper classes, such as how they see money, clothing, family structure, etc. Likewise, Gorski believes that impoverished students do have different values and goals than those of middle and upper clases, and he says that the rules found in schools do not often benefit those living in poverty, but benefit those living in middle and upper class. With regards to impoverished students’ values and goals, both tend to point to the idea that faculty in schools should help to reshape the values and goals of impoverished students. Payne stated that students should learn the “hidden rules” of the middle class from their educators so that they have another set of rules to use if they choose to do so.
Specifically, the combined importance of parental-determined academic engagement, strict discipline, nurturance, and community connectedness appeared to counteract potentially negative contextual influences of neighborhood, peers, schools, and society. The research team does a good job of setting the framework for their research in the introduction section. They clearly express what, why and how they are conducting the study. Research Question and Purpose The majority of past research on African American adolescent males has focused on the negative perspective relative to school dropout and underachievement rather than the positive influences that relate to a high level of academic achievement. However, this article attempts to address the studies of ethnically diverse adolescent samples have revealed that parental academic engagement (e.g., parental values, rewarding achievement), parenting style (e.g., authoritative parenting), and
The study found that the counsellor judged pupils largely on their social class; this therefore put them at a disadvantage as middle-class students were placed on higher level courses. The self-fulfilling prophecy is another internal factor that can be linked to social class differences in achievement. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that comes true simply by virtue of it being made. Some sociologists argue that labelling can effect pupil’s achievement by creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. This can be seen in a study of a primary school by Rosenthal and Jacobson.
Due to this, single-sex schools have been established to combat these issues. Are we doing a disservice to boys and girls by keeping them segregated? Is this ethical? How will boys and girls effectively co-exist once they are no longer in school? The following paper will argue against single-sex schools and display various reasons as to how they are counter-productive to student needs.
When we compare pupils of the same social class but different ethnic origins, still find differences in achievement. This is particularly the case for black children, since even middle class black pupils do comparatively poorly at gsces. Cultural factors may affect some ethnic groups in educational achievement. In some asian households, English in not the main language. In some west indian households creole or patois are spoken.
I think it is because of two basic reasons; firstly, as Tatum points out, one can relate better with peers of their own race because they too understand the difficulties of being a minority. I think she really made a great point, how can we expect a white person to understand the racism towards African Americans. Ms. Tatum gave an example regarding a 9th grade substitute teacher suggesting four-year colleges to all her white students and suggesting that a black adolescent male in her class go to a community college. It would be almost silly for that African American boy to sympathize with one of the white peers, not only would it be hard to relate to each other, it would be downright embarrassing. I actually think that the white teenager wouldn’t be able to see why the colored boy was hurt, they would just brush it off and give an explanation like “oh the teacher didn’t mean it like that”.
White criminals are much less frequently shown in such poses. Furthermore, whites are disproportionately portrayed as the victims of black criminals. The overall impression presented in these television shows is that the crime problem is due to blacks and that whites are the victims. With this being stated, many adolescents have grown up watching and listening to media. I do believe that the media can be held partially liable for the discrimination against African-Americans in the school system.
‘How do we account for low educational attainment among some ethnic minorities?’ Intro Functionalists believe the institution of education is harmonious, and aids a well-functioning society (Haralambos, et al., 2013, p. 665); but can this really be the case, when there is such a prominent gap in achievement children of ethnic minorities? Low educational attainment amongst some ethnic minorities is a fact; statistically Gypsy/Roma children are most likely to leave education with less than five GCSE’s, with Black Caribbean/African students also consistently performing more poorly than their white counterparts (Haralambos, et al., 2013, p. 714). The reason as to why this is the case is less clear. Many sociologists have offered explanations; culture capital, cultural deprivation, labelling of pupils, institutionalized racism and a curriculum which ignores their ethnicity. Or is it the pupils themselves who hold the answer?