However, considering that almost all of England, and Europe for that matter, was Roman Catholic at the time (bar a few smaller Christian religions, which did not affect the country on a national level), it is not the case that religion, or religious disagreements, caused rebellion against the king. Even the different rival factions (Yorkist’s, Burgundy, Ireland, etc.) were all of the same religion. Furthermore, the Church itself was a major form of authority; since enforcing laws in a country such as England was difficult due to the vast distances between each county, the churches were “the main stabilizing force”. The church was ran by the Vatican, and not the state, therefore, if the people were upset by the church, they would protest to the church and not to the monarchy.
Between 1815 and 1822 Jose de San Martin led Argentina to independence, while Bernardo O'Higgins in Chile and Simon Bolivar in Venezuela guided their countries out of colonialism. The new republics sought -- and expected -- recognition by the United States, and many Americans endorsed that idea „(USDS Basic Readings). The United States, working in agreement with Britain, wanted to guarantee no European power would move in (Herring). The Monroe Doctrine’s primary objective was to free the newly independent colonies of Latin America from European intervention and control that would make the New World a battleground for the Old. The doctrine put forward that the New World and the Old World were to remain distinctly separate spheres of influence, for they were composed of entirely separate and independent nations (Encyclopedia Brittanica).
To begin with, the luxury of a state government being able to adopt policies that may not be followed nationally is essential to success. This can give a state the extra laws needed while at the same time prevent them from being followed nationally. Contrasting regions may need this based on different populations, geography, and religions. Most people don’t realize how diverse a nation can actually be. Laws accepted in one state may be unnecessary in another.
The key question is whether religion is just declining or whether it is just changing? Most sociologists agree that evidence suggests that the traditional religions are declining not just in the UK but throughout Europe. But the argument is whether it is just social change rather than a decline in religion all together. To say that secularisation is a common factor throughout the world is wrong as there is a lot of evidence to support secularisation in Europe overall, but when it comes to America, there is a lot less
President Woodrow Wilson wrote “the he Constitution of the United States is not a mere lawyers’ document, it is a vehicle of life and its spirit is always the spirit of the age.” One must keep this fact in mind when comparing the Constitution and the Articles of Confederation. There was a vast difference in the “spirit of the age” when these documents were drafted. Coming on the heels of the Declaration of Independence and the war against England, and afraid of a dictatorship or a government that did not listen to its people, the Articles of Confederation (which will be referred to as AoC) were written it a way that gave more power to the states. The problem with this type of government was that it was too difficult to enact or enforce laws and the government could not collect enough taxes to support itself. I believe the Constitution did a better job of protecting liberties, specifically in the areas of the federal court system, representation of the people, and the levy of taxes.
The principle was adopted by the Founding Fathers due to their fear of totalitarianism. Montesquieu argued for separation of powers in his book L’Esprit de Lois, where he stated that separation of powers will avoid tyranny ‘When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person…there can be no liberty.’ On the contrary to the US, the UK’s powers are fused; the Prime Minister is both the executive and part of the legislature. In the US system there is also a separation of personnel, this means that no person can be a member of more than one branch at the same time. When Senator Al Gore was elected vice-president in 1992, he had to resign from the Senate. Similarly, in 2008, Barack Obama too had to resign from the Senate.
Therefore this tells us that secularisation has developed in other societies across the world not just in Europe. However sociologist Davie suggests that in modern society, especially across Northern Europe, people ‘believe without belonging’. Davie sees religion as taking a privatised form, and although churchgoing has declined, it does not reflect the religious beliefs, as she believes we now have people believing without belonging, where people hold religious beliefs but do not attend church. Davie believes that believing without belonging is a result of change in commitment regarding religion as attendance is now a matter of choice, rather than compulsory, people are adapting religion to suit them, Davie notes that
Davie takes on a more privatised form and argues against the secularisation theory. She believes that we now have a ‘believing without belonging’ attitude, where people hold religious beliefs but don’t go to church. Therefore, religion has not declined but personal choice has changed and it is no longer obligated to attend anymore. Davie’s believing without belonging theory can display the growth of a new form of religion which matches the decline of traditional religion. Thus, supporting Davie’s argument that religion is not declining, however, just changing to reflect a new era and modern society by creating new religion which will continue to grow.
They dealt with politics, history, religion, science, education, government, politics, economics.. Some of their proposals consisted on religious toleration instead of catholic intolerance, freedom of speech and press, no censorship, uniform taxation with no tax privileges, free trade, constitutional monarchy instead of the “divine right” and education based on meritocracy instead of reserving it for the privileged orders, etc.. They were not revolutionaries, however they did have an impact on the Collapse of the ancient regime in 1789, and therefore of the French revolution itself, and even if they didn’t completely intended it, they caused the population (By salons, press propaganda, debates, journalists) to start questioning certain aspects of the way France was ruled and it provided a justification for criticism and for change. It also provide created a questioning of the authority, as the criticisms sometime reached workers, peasants and artisans as scandalous satires in pamphlets which presented the queen as promiscuous, and a impotent and indecisive king.
Church and State: The Establishment Clause in America Today Aaron Porter ENG 122 Dr. Dwight Paulsen August 19, 2013 Church and State: The Establishment Clause in America Today The Founding Fathers worked to establish a free and independent nation. One of the key issues that resulted in the American Revolution is that of Freedom of Religion. The goal of the Framer’s was to establish a society free of government control of religion. The First Amendment to the constitution guarantees that right for all American citizens. While the country was founded on religious beliefs, the separation of church and state is necessary for religious freedom because it leads to better foreign relations, protects the church, and protects democracy.