The relative reactivity of the hydrogens H1, H2, H3 , and H4 were 0.37, 1.4, 2.9, and 1.0 respectively. The radical chlorination of 1-chlorobutane follows the radical reaction mechanism. Abstraction of hydrogen from 1-chlorobutane by the chlorine radical occurs in the first part of the propagation step. Depending on which hydrogen is abstracted by the chlorine radical, determines which product is formed. Hydrogens on the alkene have different reactivity which determines which isomer is favored.
Distinguish between an element and a compound with 2 examples for each An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into any simpler substances. Some examples of Elements are Hydrogen and Helium. A Compound is when two or more elements combine. Examples of this are Water (H2O) and Salt (NaCl) Explain the relationship between the group number and the number of electrons in the valence shell The relationship between the group number and the numebr of
The R tube will then be put in a large beaker. Another large test tube, boiling tube will be needed, along with a Pasteur pipet. A regular sized test tube will be labeled “C” for “colored solution,” and the new boiling tube will be labeled “P” for “product”. One boiling chip will then be placed into the P tube. 5mL of acidified water will be measured, using a graduated cylinder, and will be transferred to the R tube, and will be immediately vigrously mixed with the reactants.
The amount of ethanol recovered was used to determine the yield of ethanol from the reactors. A customized distillation section was used to recover an azeotropic ethanol/water mixture. Ethanol forms an azeotrope with water. Azeotrope is a term used to describe a constant boiling mixture. This means that an azeotrope is a mixture of two or more pure compounds in such a ratio that its composition cannot be changed by simple distillation.
Liquids and Solids Purpose: The goal of this experiment is to be able to identify melting/boiling points of substances. We can then use these methods to identify unknown substances because of constants in melting/boiling points. Procedure: 1. Boiling Point a. Begin by adding 1 mL of rubbing alcohol to test tube and attach a thermometer to it.
Volume of gas = molar volume x number of moles The molecular formula of gaseous hydrocarbons (CxHy) and organic compounds (CxHyOz) can be determined by combustion in excess oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water, using the following equations: CxHy + (x+ y/4) O2 x CO2 + y/2 H2O CxHyOz + (x+ y/4- z/2) O2 x CO2 + y/2 H2O Example 4 When 10 cm3 of a gaseous hydrocarbon was combusted in excess oxygen in an enclosed vessel, the volume of gas (measured at 298K) was reduced by 25 cm3. The addition of excess NaOH (aq) caused a further reduction in gas volume of 40 cm3 (measured at 298 K). The pressure in the vessel was maintained constant at 1 atm throughout the measurements. Find the molecular formula of the
LabQuest 34 Vapor Pressure and Heat of Vaporization Vapor pressure or scientifically called equilibrium vapor pressure is the condition wherein the vapor from a liquid over the same liquid in a sealed container is at a point wherein the amount of gas leaving the liquid equals the amount of gas re-entering the liquid from the vapor above the liquid. However there is a mathematical between temperature and vapor pressure, and the Clausius-Clayperon equation attest to this relationship. Clausius-Clayperon equation - ln P = - [∆Hvap / R][1/T] +C The intent of this experiment was to determine the temperature/vapor pressure relationship using the volatile liquid ethanol, CH3CH2OH; and calculate its heat of vaporization. This data was collected over a range of temperatures, 22.4° C to 34.9° C. It was intentional that the temperature remained under 40° C less the pressure inside the Erlenmeyer flask got high enough to pop the stopper out of the Erlenmeyer flask. Materials and equipment: MATERIALS Labquest 20 mL syringe Labquest App two 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks Vernier Gas Pressure Sensor ethanol, CH3CH2OH Temperature Probe 400 mL beaker rubber stopper assembly 1 liter beaker plastic tubing with two connectors hot plate Procedure: The apparatus was set up as requested by the Lab quest 34 handout and an initial pressure reading of 101.6kpa was obtained at room temperature, 22.4° C. Then the Erlenmeyer flask and the sensors were conditioned to the water bath by holding the flask down into the water bath to the bottom of the white stopper for 30 seconds, and then the valve on the white stopper was closed to keep the ethanol vapor from leaving the container at any time during the experiment.
EXPERIMENT 6 Title Kinetics of Chemical Reaction – Iodination of Cyclohexanone Aim To determine the value of the rate constant, k and order of reaction, a, b and c, and also to suggest a mechanism which agrees with the rate equation that has been obtained. Background Theory The basis of the theory of absorbance is as follows: Io ―――――→ sample ―――――→I if Io = I, no absorbance occur Io > I, the sample absorbs certain amount of light wave Io < I, the sample emits certain amount of light of certain wave length. THE HALOGENATION (IODINATION) OF KETONES (CYCLOHEXANONE) This experiment examined the rate of iodination of cyclohexanone in an aqueous medium. To increase the amount of iodine in the solution, iodine is converted to a more soluble complex ion, I3- by the addition of excess iodide ion: I2 + I- →I3- One of the characteristic reactions of ketones is the substitution of a halogen for one of the hydrogen is adjacent to the ketone group. The net reaction is: This reaction has been studied extensively and occurs for a wide variety of ketones.
And limiting reagent which is the reactant that is completely consumed when a reaction is run to completion. III. Summary of Procedure In this lab the first procedure was to measure the initial temperature of NaOCl and of Na2S2O3 and measure it with a thermometer and then record it. The same thermometer is used for measuring both solutions, but the thermometer should be washed with distilled water after the using it in one solution. Afterwards a small amount of NaOCl was added to the graduated cylinder.
Then we just give the sample to TA in order to get the peak. 4. Result and Discussion Steam distillation is a special type of distillation especially for temperature sensitive materials. Many organic compounds, in this case, limonene, tend to decompose at high sustained temperatures. Steam is introduced to the distillation system.