Introduction: The radical chlorination of chlorobutane results in the formation of four possible products. These products are formed by substitution reactions, where a halogen atom (chlorine) replaces a hydrogen atom (Wade 2010). The amount of each product formed is based on the relative reactivity of the product. The calculations of the relative reactivity are dependent on the reactivity of the hydrogen atoms, which is influenced by the chloro substituent as well as other factors such as the level of the substituted carbon and the bond dissociation energy. For this lab we want to observe how the chloro substituent has an effect on the reactivity of the possible hydrogen atoms.
(2 marks) 8 Show 2 possible products that could form when Compound H undergoes a halogenation reaction with iodine. Draw the structural isomers and name them. 2 marks 9a Is this halogenation reaction is an addition or substitution reaction? ½ mark 9b Under what conditions would this reaction occur? ½ mark 10 Outline the reaction pathway to produce propanoic acid from propane.
Ashley Peccatiello Experiment 7 – Dehydration of 2-Methylclyclohexanol, Tests for Unsaturation, and Gas Chromatography Date Performed: October 25, 2012 Date Written: October 29, 2012 Purpose: To dehydrate 2-methylclyclohexanol to obtain two isomers. To separate the products by simple distillation. To analyze the sample by introducing the technique of gas chromatography and unsaturation tests. Reaction: Figure 1. Overall reaction of the acid-catalyzed dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol Figure 2.
Introduction High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate compounds in a sample, identify compounds and can even be used to deduce the relative amounts of different compounds in a mixture. HPLC works under the same principle as thin layer chromatography using both a stationary and mobile phase. The mobile phase carries the mixture across the stationary phase which is used to separate the compounds. Although in HPLC mobile phase is tailor made to suit the polarity of the analytes. The mobile phase used in this particular experiment was Methanol and 0.1M sodium dihydrogen phosphate at a ratio of 30:70 and a pH of 4.5, slightly acidic.
ABSTRACT Isopropyltoluene isomers were synthesized through the friedel-crafts alkylation of toluene with 2-chloropropane in the presence of aluminum chloride as a catalyst. Through extraction of the distillate with water and 5% NaHCO3, followed by a fractional vacuum distillation, the desired aromatic organic compound was isolated. Infrared Spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography were used to analyze the composition, purity and to confirm the identity of the prepared product. The sample weighed approximately 2.66g, which reflected a low yield at 47%. However, from the GC the area % (also known as percent purity) was 91.8%, which indicates that a very pure product was obtained.
Record several points of pH and NaOH added (especially near equivalence point) to be use later to prepare a titration curve. Observations and Results Part I: Solution | pH | 0.1 M HCl | .70 | 0.1 M NaOH | 13.30 | Part II: Volume of 0.1 M NaOH at equivalence point: 35mL pH at equivalence point: 11.45 Molarity of the Unknown Acid A (HCl): 2.0 x 10-4 Discussion In this lab, we found out that water self ionizes itself into hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion naturally to a very small extent. An indicator, in an acid base reaction, is a substance whose color changes over a particular pH range. Phenolphthalein is an example of an indicator which changes from colorless to pink as pH goes from 8 to 10. We plotted the pH against the amount of base added producing a
a) for a we first need to find a balanced equation for when the hydrocarbons combust to form CO2 and H20. Then we plug in the deltaHf values and plug these into the equation. a) C4H6 + 11/2O2 ==> 4CO2 + 3H2O Delta Hrxn = [4DeltaHf(CO2)+3DeltaHf(H2O)] - [DeltaHf(C4H6) + 11/2DeltaHf(O2)] = [4(-393.5kJ) + 3(-285.83kJ)] - [111.9kJ + 11/2(0kJ)] = -2543.39kJ C4H8 + 6O2 ==> 4CO2 + 4H2O Delta H rxn = [4DeltaHf(CO2) + 4DeltaHf(H2O)] - [DeltaHf(C4H8) + 6DeltaHf(O2)] = [4(-393.5kJ) + 4(-285.83kJ)] - [1.2kJ +6(0kJ)] = -2718.52kJ C4H10 +13/2O2 ==> 4CO2 +5H2O DeltaHrxn = [4DeltaHf(CO2) + 5DeltaHf(H2O)] - [DeltaHf(C4H10) + 13/2DeltaHf(O2)] = [4(-393.5kJ) + 5(-285.83kJ)] - [-124.7kJ +
A precipitate is a solid product that comes out of solution in a chemical reaction. Precipitates usually form many small particles which cause a cloudy appearance in a solution. In this lab four different solutions (AgNO3, CuCl2, Pb (NO3)2, and K2Cr)4) were mixed together, two at a time in very possible combination. Observations of color change, bubbling, and/or solid (precipitate) formation were recorded. For each reaction in which a solid was formed, the chemical reaction was written (these were double replacement reactions since all of the reactants were compounds).
A) Stoichiometry allows prediction of the amounts of products that form in a chemical reaction based on the amounts of reactants. B) Stoichiometry allows prediction of how much of the reactants are necessary to form a given amount of product. C) Stoichiometry shows the numerical relationship between chemical quantities in a balanced chemical equation. D) All of the above are true. E) None of the above are true.
The bromine is acting first like an electrophile, and then after bromine has broken the π bond, a carbocation has formed, and a bromide ion has been created, the bromide ion then acts as the nucleophile and forms a bond with the carbocation. This experiment uses bromination, the specific name of halogenation with bromine. In order to for bromination to occur bromine must first be generated. This is done in situ through the oxidation of glacid acetic acid and puridinum bromide perbromide. Once generation is accomplished the available bromine can be brominated.