Also, we will discover its regiochemistry and stereochemistry. Hydration reaction is a process that gives a alcohol functional group and a hydrogen to a carbon-carbon double bond of an alkene. According to Markovnikov's rule the -OH group will be attached to the most substituted carbon which is a carbon connected to the most branches. As the result, in normal hydration reaction of (+)-α-Pinene, the -OH group will attach the carbon attaching to a methyl group. However, the desired product is (-)-Isopinocampheol, in which the -OH group need to attach to the less substituted carbon instead.
Introduction: The radical chlorination of chlorobutane results in the formation of four possible products. These products are formed by substitution reactions, where a halogen atom (chlorine) replaces a hydrogen atom (Wade 2010). The amount of each product formed is based on the relative reactivity of the product. The calculations of the relative reactivity are dependent on the reactivity of the hydrogen atoms, which is influenced by the chloro substituent as well as other factors such as the level of the substituted carbon and the bond dissociation energy. For this lab we want to observe how the chloro substituent has an effect on the reactivity of the possible hydrogen atoms.
Therefore, acetic acid was used for this experiment. It reacted with the sodium hypochlorite to give hypochlorous acid, which thenreacted with the oxygen of the alcohol. Steam distillation was used to isolated product, and then was extracted into the distillate with ether with the addition of dying agent calcium chloride. Finally, the ether was removed to get the product, cyclohexanone with the "salting out" process. The process of salting out was used to separate cyclohexanone from the aqueous solution to purify the product.
However NaBH4 has its down falls and decomposes in the presence of acidic functional groups like carboxylic acids, which means that acid groups must be reduced with a base such as sodium hydroxide before NaBH4 will be able to reduce an aldehyde or ketone. The reaction of NaBH4 is produced by the addition of a hydride ion to an organic substrate, and since this reducing agent contains four hydride one equivalent of NaBH4 is able to reduce up to four molecules of a ketone with a single carbonyl group. The mechanism for this reaction involves an irreversible nucleophilic addition of a hydride ion to the carbonyl group of benzil. Once the addition of this hydride ion occurs the carbonyl oxygen becomes protonated producing a positive charge on the carbonyl oxygen, which then recants to form a carbonyl alcohol via electrophilic addition of a hydrogen atom to the carbonyl oxygen. Since the carbonyl group of the ketone is trigonal planar molecule in its geometry it is able to be attacked from either side of the molecule by the hydride ion.
Bromination of Arenes This lab demonstrated the application of adding bromine to various arenes, hydrocarbons with alternating single bonds. This process, bromination, is a mechanism which treats hydrogen as a functional group. This being the case, the rate of reaction of certain arenes can be measured and compared to that of other arenes upon the addition of the bromine. The reaction occurs when the bromine radical generates from the halide diatomic molecule, using light energy. The fact that the energy needed to break the necessary bonds falls within the visible light spectrum is the basis on which the experiment is based.
Ashley Peccatiello Experiment 7 – Dehydration of 2-Methylclyclohexanol, Tests for Unsaturation, and Gas Chromatography Date Performed: October 25, 2012 Date Written: October 29, 2012 Purpose: To dehydrate 2-methylclyclohexanol to obtain two isomers. To separate the products by simple distillation. To analyze the sample by introducing the technique of gas chromatography and unsaturation tests. Reaction: Figure 1. Overall reaction of the acid-catalyzed dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol Figure 2.
General mechanism The chain component is as per the following, utilizing the chlorination of methane as an issue illustration: 1. Start: Splitting or homolysis of a chlorine particle to structure two chlorine particles, started by ultraviolet radiation or daylight. A chlorine particle has an unpaired electron and goes about as an issue radical. Methane chlorination: launch 2. Chain engendering (two steps): a hydrogen particle is pulled off from methane leaving a 1˚ methyl radical.
Abstract The interaction at equilibrium between acids and bases during a titration can be used to determine several characteristics of the acid or the base. In this experiment 0.05 M of KHP titrate with the strong base NaOH. From the plot of pH versus the volume of sodium hydroxide added was found that acid ionization constant Ka for KHP at half point was equal to 8.3176x10-6, also the dissociation constant Kb for conjugate base of weak acid was equal to 1x10-9. This value was established by observing the pH versus volume of NaOH graph. The equivalence point of titration occurred at a volume of 31 mL 0.081M NaOH (aq).
The electrons of the polarizable pi bond in the alkene E-stilbene acts as a nucleophile, a chemical species that donates an electron pair, and attacks one of the bromines in the dibromide molecule, which then causes the sigma bond to break as well. This results in an intermediate, which can either be an acyclic planar carbocation or
Abstract: The aim was to react trans, trans-2,4-Hexadiene-1-ol with maleic anhydride. The reaction was a Diels-Alder reaction and it produced cis-1,3,3a,4,5,7a-Hexahydro-5-methyl-3-oxo-4-isobenzofuran-carboxylic acid. This reaction gave a percentage yield of 72%. The reaction product was purified and the melting point of both the crude and purified product was found. The purification step reduced the percentage yield to 47%.