The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
Dehydration of 2-Methylcyclohexanol Abstract The goal of this lab was to dehydrate 2-Methylcyclohexanol to obtain a cyclohexene using a concentrated acid. The percent yield for the final product was 69.6% and both saturation tests were positive for the presence of a double bond. The IR spectroscopy produced peaks between 1400 and 1600 cm-1, which suggests the presence of C=C double bonds. Introduction In this lab an alcohol is dehydrated using concentrated phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The acid protonates the hydroxyl group, which creates water, a good leaving group.
( b) What was the percentag e excess of the excess reactant used? ( c) What is the deg ree of completion of the reaction, expressed as the moles of NaOC l formed to the moles of NaOCl that would have formed if the reaction had gone to completion? ( d) What is the y ield of NaOCl per amount of Chlorine use ( on weig ht basis)? (e) What was the extent of reaction? Prob.4 I n a process for the manufacture of chlorine by direct oxidation of HC l with air over a catalyst to form Cl2 and H2O ( only), the exit product is composed of HCl (4.4% ), Cl2 ( 19.8% ), H2O ( 19.8% ), O 2 ( 4.0% ) and N2 (52.0% ).
The nitro group of 5-nitrophthalhydrazide was reduced with a mild reducing agent, sodium dithionite, in part B. At the end of part B, yellow crystals of 5-Aminophthalhydrazide were collected. By adding a strong base (NaOH), luminol was converted to a dianion, which formed peroxide when oxidized by molecular oxygen. Dimethylsulfoxide was used as a solvent in the previous reaction. The bond between the two oxygen atoms in peroxide is relatively weak; unstable peroxide decomposes producing nitrogen gas and 3-aminophthalate dianion.
Because this reaction is reversible, a fractional distillation is necessary to produce cyclohexene, water, and some impurities and a simple distillation is followed to further purify the product. [pic] (Fig. 1- Cyclohexanol dehydrated by sulfuric acid to produce cyclohexene) Procedure: 1. Mix five mL of Cyclohexanol and 2.5 mL of 9M sulfuric acid in a 25 mL flask. 2.
Electron donating substituents attached to the diene, accelerate the reaction as do electron withdrawing groups on the dieneophile . The Alcohol acts as the diene and the anhydride as the dieneophile. The Diels–Alder reaction is a highly stereoselective reaction. In order for the reaction to occur the diene must be in the s-cis formation .The trans, trans-2,4-Hexadiene-1-ol can adopt the cis formation by rotating around a sigma bond while still maintaining Trans stereochemistry . The position of the diene to the dieneophile in the transition state determines the
Investigating stoichiometry with Sodium Salts of Carbonic Acid Lab Report Experiment 7 Introduction: The purpose of this lab is to investigate and better understand chemical stoichiometry. In this experiment, you will be reacting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) with hydrochloric acid (HCl) as shown below to produce sodium chloride, water and carbon dioxide. Using this chemical equation: NaHCO3 + HCl = NaCl + H20 + CO2. You will be given two unknown substances and expected to find which the sodium bicarbonate is and which the sodium carbonate is. You will do this by measuring the mass of the residue and comparing it to the thr=eoretical amount which is .165 g for Na2CO3 and .104 g for NaHO3.
* Reagents : most commonly the base would be the alkoxide, R'O- * The reaction involves an ester enolate reacting with another molecule of the ester. * Remember enolates are good nucleophiles and the ester carbonyl C are electrophilic. * The products of these reactions are ketoesters which are important, useful synthetic intermediates. * Note that the product is the original ester with an acyl group added i.e. an acylation reaction has occurred.
For those that tested negative, 15 M NH4OH was added in the ammonium hydroxide test to observe for the precipitate color which further separated the cations. The final step was the flame tests which confirmed the cations’ identity. After a Bunsen burner was setup, a Nichrome loop was dipped in HCl and placed above the flame until no color was observed in order to more accurately observe the color of the cation when placed in the flame. Each cation was added into centrifuge
The citric acid cycle takes certain compounds that donate protons and electrons to the electron transport chain. The electron transport chain then generates ATP through the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Krebs cycle also produces two ATP through the process of substrate phosphorylation. This process occurs in the mitochondria. • What is the role of the electron transport system?