CHEMISTRY HOMEWORK 1. All of the statements concerning the carbonyl group in aldehydes and ketones are true except A) the bond is polar, with a slight negative charge on the oxygen atom. B) the bond angles about the central carbon atom are 120°. C) the carbonyl group is planar. D) in condensed form the carbonyl group can be written as -CHO.
The “1” or “2” is also represent the reaction is unimolecular or bimolecular reaction. The secondary alcohols are more favor to react with hydrogen halides by both SN1 and SN2 mechanisms. For primary or methyl alcohol, both molecules undergo SN1 mechanism while tertiary alcohol undergoes SN2 mechanism. The mechanism of this SN1 reaction involves three steps. First, is the rapid protonation of the alcohol, and then by the much slower rate-determining step, the loss of water to give a
Identify the condensed formula of the following structure: A) (CH3)2CHCHClCH(CH3)2 B) CH3CH(CH3)CHClCH(CH3)2 Ans: C C) D) (CH3)2CHCHClC(CH3)3 (CH3)3CCHClCH(CH3)3 9. What is the chemical formula of the following carbon skeleton diagram? A) C8H14 Ans: C B) C8H16 C) C8H18 D) C8H20 10. How many hydrogen atoms are there on carbon atoms 1 and 2, respectively, in the structure below? A) 4, 1 B) 4, 0 Ans: D C) 3, 1 D) 3, 0 11.
8.1 5) Based on the octet rule, iodine most likely forms an __________ ion. A) [pic] B) [pic] C) [pic] D) [pic] E) [pic] Answer: E Diff: 1 Page Ref: Sec. 8.1 6) There are __________ unpaired electrons in the Lewis symbol for an oxygen atom. A) 0 B) 1 C) 2 D) 4 E) 3 Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: Sec. 8.1 7) How many unpaired electrons are there in the Lewis structures of a [pic] ion?
2. Acetylation of p-methylaniline to create p-methylacetanilide. Here acetic anhydride will be used to prepare the nitrogen substituted acetamide. This is conducted to make the amine group, which is a very stong ortho and para directing activator on an aromatic ring, a lesser strength activator so that the oxidation of the methyl group can proceed. 3.
104 kJ/mol C. 52 kJ/mol D. -52 kJ/mol E. -104 kJ/mol 59. Give the number of lone pairs around the central atom and the molecular geometry of SCl2. A. 0 lone pairs, linear B. 1 lone pair, bent C. 2 lone pairs, bent D. 3 lone pairs, bent E. 3 lone pairs, linear 60.
Atom Arrangement (shape) of the electron pairs around the atom Hybridisation of the atom Geometry around the atom N-1 Trigonal planar sp2 Angular/bent/V-shaped N-2 Tetrahedron sp3 Trigonal pyramidal C-3 Trigonal planar sp2 Trigonal planar C-4 Tetrahedron sp3 Tetrahedron The pKa of (the conjugate acid form at) N-1 is 3.12 and the pKa of (the conjugate acid form at) N-2 is 8.02. Draw the structure of the predominant form of nicotine that exists in the human body at pH 7.4. The pH is on the base side of 3.12 and so the conjugate base will predominate and the
We can represent one pair of shared electrons in a covalently bond by a line, Cl- Cl. In a double bond four electrons are shared. The two atoms in an oxygen molecule share two pairs of electrons so that the oxygen atoms have a double bond between them. We can represent the two pairs of shared electrons in a covalent bond by a double line, O=O. [pic] How does Sharing electrons hold atoms together?
When referring to mass sum of the atomic masses of the atoms represented by the formula of a molecular substance, the correct term used is A. atomic mass B. formula weight C. molecular mass D. molecular weight 12. A mole of CO2 contians A. 6.02 x 1023 ions C. 6.02 x 1023 formula ions B. 6.02 x 1023 molecules D. 6.02 x 1023 atoms 13. The mass of the products in a chemical reaction depends on the amount of A. excess reactant B. limiting reactant C. oxidizing agent D. reducing subtannce 14.
This representation reflects the fact that there is a hybrid ion represented by the H in NADH and one hydrogen atom represented by H+. The hybrid ion is passed as an electron from complex to complex in the ETC, while the hydrogen atom is shuttled by each of the complexes into the intermembrane space to create a hydrogen ion gradient. This gradient will later be used by oxidative phosphoralation to create ATP. NADH with H+ enters the ETC via the NADH dehydrogenase complex (A.K.A Complex 1). NADH dehydrogenase removes the electrons with the hydrogen atom from NADH.