Free Radical Halogenation

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MSA University Faculty of Pharmacy Organic chemistry department PC 111A Free Radical Halogenation of Alkanes Students' names: Nada Hossam Shaker Abd El-Fatah ID: 150121 Radwa Ahmed Al-Sayed Sharif ID: 151977 Rahma Kamal Mohammed Seyam ID: 151607 Group: C Course Supervisor: Dr. Nadia Abdou Teaching Assistant: Dr. Madlin Labib In natural science, free-radical halogenation is a kind of halogenation. This synthetic response is normal of alkanes and alkyl-substituted aromatics under application of UV light. The response is utilized for the mechanical combination of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), and hexachlorobutadiene. It moves ahead by a free-radical chain instrument. Alkanes respond with halogen, (for example, chlorine or bromine) when the mixture is presented to ultraviolet light (symbolized as hv or UV) or when warmed to high temperature (200 - 400c)). The capacity of ultraviolet light is to give vitality to the homolytic cleavage of halogen (Cl-Cl or Br-Br). The items are haloalkanes (RX) and hydrogen halides (Hx) .The halogenation of alkanes is a free radical substitution response, in which the system includes start, spread and end steps. The monosubstitution of alkanes alludes to the substitution response where there is one and only hydrogen molecule in alkanes substituted by halogen free radical. General mechanism The chain component is as per the following, utilizing the chlorination of methane as an issue illustration: 1. Start: Splitting or homolysis of a chlorine particle to structure two chlorine particles, started by ultraviolet radiation or daylight. A chlorine particle has an unpaired electron and goes about as an issue radical. Methane chlorination: launch 2. Chain engendering (two steps): a hydrogen particle is pulled off from methane leaving a 1˚ methyl radical. The

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