Quantitative research is usually used after qualitative data has been gathered and uses that information to construct its own research gathering techniques. The goal of quantitative data is to classify data or to create statistical models for explaining observations (Experiment Resources, 2012). Generally qualitative studies will use researchers as the main tool for gathering data. Researchers in qualitative studies will use interviews and other verbal communication tools to gather data; quantitative research differs from this in that it collects data from questionnaires and surveys to compile information. The distinction is made that in an interview the people involved can clarify and describe answers while, in a survey or questionnaire the participant is constrained to the descriptions provided which will be the same for each person.
A lab experiment is different as it is in a controlled environment with control over the independent variable as well as all confounding variables, the dependent will be being measured. A experimental is usually designed so that there is a control group and experimental group/s. A change is introduced to the experimental group but not the control. The control group gives the researcher a baseline against which to judge
Therefore, in a true experiment subjects are randomly assigned to the levels of the independent variable. The only differences in the groups would be due to chance. Giacomoni (December 2000) said true experimental designs compare people who have received an intervention ("treatment group") to an equivalent group who did not receive the intervention ("control group"). The treatment or control groups are randomly assigned to subjects; so therefore, random assignment is the hallmark of the true experimental designs. The randomized trial in many circles is the “gold standard” of quantitative research, reflecting its degree of methodological rigor.
a patient's description of their pain rather than a measure of pain. Qualitative research techniques such as focus groups and in-depth interviews have been used in one-off projects commissioned by guideline development groups to find out more about the views and experiences of patients and carers. However, since the method can only examine small groups, and data relies heavily on words or stories of participants, validity of result is limited. ( Accuracy of the data collected depends on the skill of the researchers and the trust of the participant to respond well and behave naturally. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Quantitative research method is used to produce factual and reliable outcome data.
Theory and Methodology Good research follows from a reasonable starting point, a theoretical concept or perspective. Quantitative research uses a positivist perspective in which evidence is objectively and systematically obtained to prove a causal model or hypothesis; what works is the focus.3 Alternatively, qualitative approaches focus on how and why something works, to build understanding.3 In the positivist model, study objects (eg, learners) are independent of the researchers, and knowledge
Quantitative Versus Qualitative Essay Eva Hutchens Texas A&M University – Central Texas Quantitative Versus Qualitative Essay When conducting research using a quantitative method the author will identify a research problem based on current trends in a particular field of study. Researching a trend usually implies that the author will conduct a study to find out an overall tendency in people and how those tendencies vary among individuals. Also, in some quantitative studies it may be needed that the researcher explains how one variable affects another variable (Creswell, 2012, p.13). When using a qualitative approach to research it is usually because the variables are not known and there is a need to explore the research problem further. The qualitative research seeks to explore a problem and develop a thorough understanding of the central research problem (Creswell, 2012, p. 16).
In other words, they answer the question What drives behaviour? It is important to remember that the following are theories, none of which have been conclusively shown to be valid. Nonetheless, they are helpful in providing a contextual framework for dealing with individuals Process theory is a commonly used form of scientific research study in which events or occurrences are said to be the result of certain input states leading to a certain outcome (output) state, following a set process. Another theory that attempts to explain human behavior is Content theory. Process theory holds that if an outcome is to be duplicated, so too must the process which originally created it, and that there are certain constant necessary conditions for the outcome to be reached.
A major goal in research design is to decrease or control the influence of extraneous variables as much as possible. Controlling extraneous variables enables the researcher to more accurately determine the effect of an independent or treatment variable on a dependent or outcome variable. Researchers attempt to recognize and control as many extraneous variables as possible in quasi-experimental and experimental studies, and specific designs and sample criteria have been developed to control the influence of extraneous variables that might influence the outcomes of studies (Burns & Grove, 2011). One way to do this is by narrowly defining the sampling criteria to make the sample as homogeneous (or similar) as possible to control for extraneous variables. Other methods include randomization or random assignment of subjects to groups; matching subjects on extraneous variables and then assigning them randomly to groups; application of statistical techniques of analysis of covariance; and balancing means and standard deviations of groups (Mcleod,
Qualitative research generates rich, detailed and valid data that contribute to in depth understanding of the context, quantitative researches generate reliable population based and generalised data. A particular strength of quantitative research is that it can be generalised to some extent, a sample that closely relates to a population is chosen. Qualitative researches do not choose samples that are closely related to a population. Quantitative researches allow the researcher to test hypotheses. Qualitative researches are more for exploratory purposes, the researches allow the data to take them on different directions.
Although positivists prefer taking objective social facts into account, it is evident that they are subjective in the source of data they will use, or are bound to use. Interactionalists, on the other hand consider that the reality of social behaviour is to be found when individuals interact and create their own social experiences. They seek meaning, and probe into the beliefs of individuals acting together in groups. Interactionalists use qualitative data. This data deals with the quality of human experience.