The use of these two types of data collection means the case studies are very in depth and detailed. This means psychologist can gain a detailed source of data. However, due to the fact that it is a case study the results cannot be replicated on subsequent occasions. Triangulation is analysing data gathered by different means such as questionnaires and interviews in case studies and developing themes. In case studies there is an aim rather than a hypothesis like an experiment has, which indicates what the psychologist intend to find out and the reason for their investigations.
As precious this book might be for mental health professional, it also have its limitations such as: 1. The danger of over diagnosis 2. The power of diagnostic labels 3. The confusion of serious mental disorders with normal problems 4. The illusion of objectivity and universality.
With the qualitative method, there is more room for interpretation. A disadvantage of the qualitative method is that the findings are not expressed numerically. An advantage might be that it does provide another set of potentially useful research tools. 5. Some of the ethical considerations that are involved when conduction criminological research are data confidentiality and informed consent.
In order to fully appreciate the importance of this process, the history that led to its inclusion in research projects must be understood. Although informed consent is designed to make sure that a participant fully understands the procedures, beneﬁts, and risks involved in an experiment, it is not without its ﬂaws in its practical application. There are many covert communication barriers between participants and researchers that lead to misunderstandings. This prevents participants from making the fully autonomous decisions sought for in the informed consent process. Some of those barriers are related to cultural aspects such as language diﬀerences and religious dogma.
They were give a description of a stranger with varying degrees of similarity to the participants. They found that significant effects for attitude similarity is important for recipricol liking, and provides strength for the model. However the research was carried out via a lab study, so doesn't necessarily show that the principles of need satisfaction and similarity apply to real life (Mundane Realism), so it may weaken the theory. Cordon and Crano (88) believed similarity is important in the formation of relationships who are not similar to us, we lessen the chance of being rejected. However, there are research limitations, as only attitude and personality factors were dealt with Yoshida (72)pointed out that this represents a narrow view of factors important in relationship formation.
The problem has been inconsistencies with the semantics of UML, since symbols could be interpreted in different ways, which could be difficult in learning the language of UML. Progressive work to the constructs of UML is needed to standardize UML for better comprehension. “Studies suggest that different methods of representing an information system graphically may impact the ability of the user to comprehend the features and functioning of the system being modeled”. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) provides a way for identifying more errors than in traditional modeling tools. Users are able to identify errors better with UML than with
The human society is becoming more and more complicated day by day, and with this complication the need of psychological analysis of different individuals (to ensure the wellbeing of their mental health) is increasing on a random basis. Considering the changing face of the human society and its resulting psychological dilemmas the process of psychotherapy should be given special emphasis. It should be noted that “A theory of psychotherapy acts as a roadmap for psychologists: It guides them through the process of understanding clients and their problems and developing solutions” (“Different approaches to psychotherapy”, n.d.). Today, after much research and deliberation, psychologists/psychotherapists prefer to adhere to three specific approaches to psychotherapy, viz. behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and humanistic therapy.
Given that improper statistical analysis distort research findings, I faced many challenges in ensuring data integrity and appropriate analysis of my research findings. These challenges include: Drawing unbiased inference The main aim of analysing data is to distinguish between an true event and a false one bias occurring during data collection, selection of data analysis method increases the chances of drawing biased inference (Janssen, Marcotorchino, & Proth, 2013) Following acceptable norms in research Given that, every field of study has its acceptable practices for data analysis; it is always wise to follow these accepted norms. Norms are mostly based on assumptions about the population and the nature of variables used. Following norms is not usually very easy, because sometimes the data collected may require the researcher to use unconventional norms (Li & Baron, 2012) Presenting the data This is one of the biggest challenges I faced while conducting my research, my biggest question was which portion of the data should be show and how to do it. Whether to use graphs or tables presenting data is difficult especially when the data is big or when the is a lot of categorisation.
Many cases like “The Elizabeth Smart Case: Why We Need Specific Laws Against Brainwashing” have shown that a persuasive situation may change attitude, but not necessarily change someone’s behavior. Coercion can obviously be affective in changing people’s behavior, but how do we persuade people to change their actual beliefs? One problem that experimenters have is that it is difficult to generalize from the laboratory to real life. Many confounds could be present during the laboratory experiments of attitude and behavioral changes. Still, social psychologists have formed theories about how attitude and behavior changes can occur.
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Whether conducting literature reviews or completing original research, a person has to conclude what a versatile tool statistics is in the hands of any researcher. Whether it be from basic statistics like data description or complex statistics that foresee future patterns or even to strengthen scientific claims about current climates. Concerning the role of statistics, it cannot be taken with ease. In almost any field the role of statistics is essential, especially in psychology. The statistical method is divided into two main branches known as descriptive and inferential statistics that will be explained in this paper (Statistics for Psychology, 2009).