Qcf Level 5 Unit 33

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Unit 33 Understand the process and experience of dementia 1. Understand the neurology of dementia 1.1Describe a range of causes of dementia syndrome There is still so much unknown about what causes dementia and the 4 main types of dementia which are Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, dementia with lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia. Alzheimer’s as far as we know is caused when two abnormal proteins build in the brain, they form a plaque which disrupts the way the brain and its cells work to enable them to communicate to each other. Some believe that Alzheimer’s is caused by genetic factors or lifestyle, age, downs syndrome or cardio vascular disease. Vascular dementia is caused when there is a reduction in the blood flow to the brain. Over time, this can damage the parts of the brain which play a large part of a person memory, speech and attention. A stroke can play a part in this type of dementia when it narrows the blood vessels to the brain. Dementia with Lewy Bodies is caused by lumps of protein which builds up inside nerve cells inside the brain, the proteins damage the nerve cells and how they work, these nerves are responsible for thinking, memory and movement of a person. Dementia with Lewy Bodies can be closely related to Parkinsons Disease and there is a theory that Dementia with Lewy Bodies interferes with two neurotransmitters called dopamine and acetylcholine which assist in the brains functions. In Frontotemporal dementia – Picks Disease, the brain shrinks in the frontal and temporal lobes and a build of specific protein’s occur in these areas. Once the proteins come together, they become toxic and cause brain cells to die. It is not understood why these proteins build up. There are other dementia types too, namely Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) caused by an abnormal infectious protein call Prion which cause nerve damage to

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