Hsc L3 Unit 4222-365 Dementia UNIT 4222-365 UNDERSTAND THE PROCESS AND EXPERIENCE OF DEMENTIA OUTCOME 1 1.1 The brain is a very complex organ and is divided up into different areas that control bodily functions. In dementia, some of the cells stop working. The part of the brain this occurs in will affect how that person thinks, remembers and communicates. Alzheimer’s disease; is a physical disease affecting the brain. During the course of the disease, protein develops in the structure of the brain leading to the death of brain cells.
UNIT 4222-365 1.1 Range of causes of dementia Cells in the brain stop working, and the part of the brain that this occurs in will affect how that person thinks, remembers and communicates. The most common forms of dementia are Alzheimer’s disease and Vascular dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is caused by damage in certain areas of the brain. With time, it spreads and affects cells in other parts of the brain. The cause of the brain cells dying and the deterioration of the connectors is not fully known.
There is also a chemical imbalance within the make-up of the brain. These nerve cells are called Neurons and they carry information around the brain. The damaged neurons break down and some of the information in the brain is lost. The second most common dementia is vascular dementia.
Dementia is basically damage in the brain where there is a build-up of abnormal proteins which causes a decline in mental ability. The decline can be either rapid or a gradual process. Typical causes of Dementia can be one specific disease such as Alzheimer’s which accounts for 60-80% of cases, or Parkinson’s or motor neurone disease, however Dementia is not a specific disease but rather describes a wide range of symptoms. In most cases, dementia is not inherited directly from family members, although a small number of cases can be inherited from family members. Other less common causes of dementia may include depression, head injuries, alcohol misuse, brain tumours, infections of the brain such as HIV, Strokes, or lack of Vitamin B in the diet.
Alzheimer’s disease- Alzheimer’s disease is caused by the build-up of proteins in the brain which form into “plagues and tangles”, these in turn will cause a loss of connection between nerve cells and cause cell death and loss of brain tissue. Early symptoms of Alzheimer’s can be lapses in memory, problems with language (forgetting words or their meanings) and poor visuospatial skill’s (gaging distance, ability to see in 3D). People can also suffer from depression or anxiety, they could become withdrawn and lose interest in daily activities or hobbies or have poor initiation. As the disease progresses sufferers can develop more pronounced memory problems and lose a sense of time and place, they may forget where they are or have difficulties recognising their own family. Vascular dementia- Vascular dementia is caused by the flow of blood and oxygen to the brain being interrupted causing the death of brains cells, this is called an infarct.
The plaque and tangles are believed to be the cause of Alzheimer’s disease. Plaque is made up of Beta-Amyloid, which clump together and surround nerve cells in the brain. Tangles destroy essential transport systems in the brain. As Alzheimer’s progresses, the brain dies, impairing the patient’s ability to care for
Unit Dem 201 1.1 Dementia is used to describe the symptoms that occur when the brain is affected by specific diseases and conditions. Dementia is a chronic progressive problem of cognition which is failure of the brains functions. Dementia affects different parts of the brain and at different speeds. 1.2 The key functions that are affected by dementia are: Temporal lobe: - responsible for vision, memory, language, hearing, and learning. Frontal lobe; - responsible for decision making, problem solving, control behaviour.
People with delirium suffer from hallucinations and delutions which means they hear see or think things that are not real, their thinking and reasoning are affected significantly and severe confusion is often present as in most cases of dementia. Age related memory impairment can cause forgetfulness again similar to dementia. The most common causes of different types of dementia are as follows. Alzheimer's disease: Alzheimer's disease is caused by parts of the brain wasting away, which damages the structure of the brain and how it works.It is not known exactly what causes this process to begin, but people with Alzheimer's disease have been found to have abnormal amounts of protein and fibres in the brain.These reduce the effectiveness of healthy neurons, gradually destroying them.Over time, this damage spreads to other areas of the brain such as the grey matter and the hippocampus. Risk factors
The myelin sheath around the axon of the brain and the spinal cord are damage. MS prevent the nerve cells of the brain and the spinal cord from affectivity communicating by slowing down the nerve impulse. When the electrical nerves slow down, its blocks a signal from being passing from the brain to the spinal cord, result in a lost connection. MS is an auto immune system disease when the body destroys itself. The immune system work against the body a foreign virus enters the body; the body make antibodies to fight of the infection, but the immune system eventually work against itself by helping to destroy the myelin around the axons.
2 How dementia affects decision-making Dementia is the umbrella term for a number of conditions which cause damage to the brain cells. The most common form is Alzheimer’s disease which has a gradual progression. The next most common type is vascular dementia which has a step-like progression. About one in four people with Parkinson’s disease also develop dementia. Short-term memory loss, disorientation and loss of concentration are common symptoms.