When cells need to divide, the cells have to replicate and copy its entire DNA so that each daughter cell gets one complete set of genetic information. The hydrogen pairs that are holding together the base pairs are broken by enzymes, like helicase, and the molecule is split in half creating two strands. This process is also called the “unzipping process”. These two strands have to follow the rules of base pairing. Each strand serves as a template for the attachment of complementary bases.
Enzymes called topoisomerases produce breaks in the DNA molecules and then reconnect the strands, relieving strain and effectively preventing tangling and knotting during replication. DNA polymerase adds new nucleotides to a growing strand of DNA. Because DNA polymerase must adhere to an existing template, an RNA primer is first created at the site of replication. The RNA primer is synthesized by primase, an enzyme that is able to start a new strand of RNA opposite a DNA strand. After a few nucleotides have been added, the primase is displaced by DNA polymerase, which can then add subunits to the 3’ end of the short RNA primer.
Describe the structure and function of each of the eukaryotic organelles. ”A eukaryotic cell is sectioned by internal membranes into different functioning categories called organelles. For example, the nucleus houses DNA, the genetic component that controls the cells activities. (Boundless. “Introduction” Boundless Biology).
A ribosome can also be known as the chemical factory. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) has the job of making copies of parts of the DNA as required by the body and taking it through the chemical factory. So in relation to the topic of this essay, a messenger mRNA comes along and takes a copy of a digestive enzyme from the DNA and squeezes through the pores with it into the cytoplasm . In this environment it heads towards the ribosomes and passes through the ribosome where protein synthesis and translation occurs. The protein then passes to the Golgi apparatus where it is processed and packaged or more simply modified and labelled for its digestive function then released in vesicles to go and perform its specific function.
3. Describe each stage of the flow of information starting with DNA and ending with a trait. Information will start with the DNA traveling to the RNA and into the protein. This information flow will also be followed through the cell as it travels from the DNA in the nucleus, and the Cytoplasm, then to the Ribosomes and the Endoplasmic Reticulum, and finally to the Golgi apparatus, this system packages the final products for export outside the cell (Science Daily, 2013). Reference UIC.edu.
The nucleus constitutes most of the genetic material of the cell - the DNA. It controls the heredity characteristics of an organism.It is responsible for protein synthesis, cell division, growth and differentiation. Cytoplasm: the cytoplasm is the fluid substance that fills the space between the cell membrane and the cellular organelles.The enzymes in the cytoplasm metabolize the macromolecules into small parts, so that it can be easily available for the other cellular organelles like mitochondria. It also transports the products of cellular respiration. Mitochondria: the mitochondria are rod shaped structures.
I. The nucleus envelope separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell; within the wall of the envelope is where nucleus pores are found. J. Ribosomes are attached to the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and direct the assembly of proteins that are then modified within the network of membranes within the rough endoplasmic reticulum. K. The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum provides a large surface area for chemical reactions to take place within the cell. Describe the main types of human tissue, Describe the function of the main human tissue types (600 words) (P2/3) * Epithelial tissue protect the tissues that lie beneath it.
Cytoplasm is located within the cell membrane and all cell types and contains all organelles and cell parts. Majority of all the important activities take place in the cytoplasm as cytoplasm consist of enzymes which are responsible for breaking down waste and also aid in metabolic activity. Nucleus: The nucleus is the control system of the cell. The nucleus contains the DNA of the cell. The function of the cell is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating the gene expression.
Notre Dame High School Caguas, PR 8th Laboratory Investigation Proteins Conclusion In this investigation the students were able to identify if protein was or was not present in different samples of foods that people eat in a daily basis. Proteins are macromolecules, consisting of one or more chains of amino acids. Proteins perform many functions within living organisms, including catalyzing reactions, replicating DNA in response to a stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another mainly in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in folding of the protein into a specific structure that determines its activity. To confirm the presence of proteins in each sample the students performed a biuret test.