Phobias And Addictions

1176 Words5 Pages
Phobias and Addictions February 27, 2012 Phobias and Addictions “Learning refers to any enduring change in the way an organism responds based on its experience.” (Kowalski & Westen, 2011) A large amount of learning tales place, in people and animals, when the environment makes a choice, the only option, and every choice has a consequence. A learning theory, according to Kowalski and Westen, is that organisms adapt to what they learn and this learning shapes their behavior. Classical and operant conditioning are two common learning methods, however, they are different in the way organisms learn behavior. The learner may not be aware that a learning process is taking place at the time it is in motion. The end results, or outcomes, due to classical and operant conditioning, play a huge role in how an individual functions in society as we know it. Which is why, emotional difficulties (phobias and addictions) come about when dealing with each conditioning method. (Kowalski & Westen, 2011) Phobias A phobia is a state of mind where a fear is present in a situation, activity, or object. These phobias cause an organism to feel that something has to be avoided. This may effect an individual’s ability to socialize, work, or carry out tasks in their own life. Phobias may cause more do stress to an individual to where that individual will not want be have anything to with anything associated with the phobia. This may cause the individual to draw away from society all together. There are many symptoms associated with phobias, such as: chest pain, sweating, choking sensation, shortness of breath, dizziness, heart palpitations, nausea, and the fear of dying. (Smith, 2010) Classical conditioning may cause an individual to develop a phobia. This takes place when a stimulus is combined with another and causes a change in the first reflexive response to the first
Open Document