Discuss explanations for the success and/or failure of dieting (25 marks) The cognitive behavioural approach looks to explain dieting through positive and negative thought processes. The main reason why people want to lose weight is because they have negative views on their own body image. Herman and Polivy try to explain why restraint might actually increase eating, through their boundary model, which is that when dieting there is a conflict between the physiological need for food and the cognitive control over what should be eaten whilst dieting. The problem is that after the first 5-10% initial weight los the person begins to reach a plateau and the weight loss stops. A further problem is that at this point the body’s psychological needs and desire to maintain a certain set point over ride the cognitive control of the diet.
The two diets differ in the phases used to lose the weight. The Atkins diet has four different phases. Phase one is the Induction phase. The goal of this phase is to induce Benign Dietary Ketosis, a situation where fat metabolites show up in the urine. Atkins likes ketosis (People eat fewer carbohydrates, their bodies turn to fat for energy, so it makes sense that more ketones are generated.
“Dieting often fails because people are trying to go against their biological drive to eat.” Discuss explanations for the success and failure of dieting. Dieting is extremely common and research has shown that up to 70% of women diet at some stage in their lives. Some diets are successful, whereas some are not and there are many explanations for this. One explanation for why dieting is successful is that those with low self-esteem and are dissatisfied with their body are more likely to stick to their diet and lose weight. Ogdens’ 2000 study supports this view; he investigated differences in psychological factors between weight loss regainers and weight loss maintainers.
Blood glucose levels drop again after eating and the Lateral hypothalamus is activated (which initiates feeding) and we become hungry and the process starts again. There are several neurotransmitters in the body which are also involved in eating regulation. Ghrelin is a hormone which is released when the stomach is empty so it triggers eating. The second most important hormone is leptin and this is released from adipocytes, and the more fat a person has the more leptin is released and it acts as a satiety signal so stops food intake. Cummings et al (2004) did a study into the effects of ghrelin on people.
Dieting involves trying to eat less than usual. It involves placing a cognitive limit on food intake and attempting to eat up to a limit that is less than usual. Research has shown that up to 70% of women diet at some point in the lives, which shows that dieting happens often which can either be successful or unsuccessful. Studies by Herman and Mack (1975) and Wardle and Beales (1988) show success and failure of dieting and the causes and consequences. Also Failure to Dieting has been linked to overeating which will be discussed as they play a major role of Dieting.
Low mood can often result in comfort eating, although occasionally it seems to have the opposite effect. Studies seek to investigate the effect of mood and distress on eating often look for either hypophagia( excess under-eating) or hyperphagia( excessive eating) as well as changes in patterns of consumption and food preferences. Odgen(2007) introduced a masking hypotheses where he observed that dieters who overeat in response to low mood may be seeking to mask their negative mood( dysphasia) with a temporary heightened mood induced by eating. Also, other people might get carbohydrate-craving syndrome in response to their low mood where they have an irresistible desire to consume sweet or starchy foods. Eating such things triggers an improvement in mood as carbohydrates are an important source of the amino acid tryptophan which is an essential building block for serotonin.
Mary Scales May 2, 2012 SCI220 Week 1: Discussion Questions • What are some health problems related to inadequate diets? Provide a brief explanation of the problem and the body system involved. If you eat more than you use the surplus energy is stored as body fat; this could lead to you becoming overweight which increases your risk of disease and disability. Some health problems such as high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, non-insulin dependent diabetes, joint pain, constipation, and becoming short of breath. Your risks multiply if you eat to much animal fat, smoke, drink alcohol and get very little exercise.
Discuss psychological explanations of one eating disorder (8+16 marks) The DSM defines eating disorders as ‘illnesses in which the victims suffer severe disturbances in their eating behaviours and related thoughts and emotions’. It is argued that the preoccupation with food in many Western cultures, coupled with the obsession of losing weight has led to the emergence of food and eating disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa (AN). As society has developed its understanding of the causes of eating disorders, it has become apparent that they are as much a mental disorder as they are a physical disorder. Thus psychological explanations have emphasised the risk factors of media, culture, personality and childhood experiences in the cause of Anorexia Nervosa. The DSM (IV) states four criteria for AN.
This essay will look at two psychological theories concerning of the origins of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia. The main focus will be on the psychodynamic theory and the bio-medical theory, and the assumptions of each. Characteristics and Symptoms Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Significant Weight Loss Continual Dieting, although already thin. Fear of gaining weight. Lack of menstrual periods.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classify three major eating disorders; anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise classified. Biological components of eating disorders include genetics, hormonal abnormalities, and structural brain abnormalities. “Studies have consistently found that identical twins have higher concordance rates for anorexia and bulimia than fraternal twins, thus indicating some genetic basis for eating disorders” (Hansell & Demour, 2008). Anorexia and bulimia are both associated with low serotonin levels along with some brain structure abnormalities. However, researchers are trying to determine whether these abnormalities are a result of eating disorders.