The child’s nature refers to the influence that genes play on development, while nurture refers to the influence of the environment. Which one has a more substantial impact on the child’s development? We now know that both combine to create the child; that nature affects nurture, and nurture affects nature. However, in what ways are the parents more influential than the peers and how are the peers more influential than the parents? From the moment of conception a child gets its genetic makeup from the parents, thus already beginning their impact on the child.
The ‘Maturation theory’ believes development happens as a sequenced process, also stating that genes help is develop into the person we are meant to be. The environment we reside in only provides support for helping unfold talents. Inherited conditions usually dominate genes which effect behaviour in many ways; this could be inherited from a parent. Genetic influences on behaviour disorder which affect an individual’s behaviour regardless of the environment. Examples how this perspective can be applied in health and social care: If you are working with children or adults with a genetic disorder such as down-syndrome you would need to be aware of the behaviour symptoms which correlate to the disorder.
Running Head: NATURE VS. NURTURE-THE GREAT DEBATE 1 Nature vs. Nurture: The Great Debate Jeffery Gray, RN Western Governors University September 2014 NATURE VS. NURTURE: THE GREATE DEBATE 2 Abstract Describe the basic elements of the nature-nurture controversy. There are two different rationales for the origin, cause, or source of human behavior. Researchers and Scientists alike suggest that behavior is either the result of nature or nurture. Nature suggests that human behavior is the result of a genetic disposition, in other words, an individual’s behavior exists at birth, it is innate, they are born with the behavior inside of them. However, nurture suggests that an individual’s behavior is learned, it is the result or by-product of the environment in which the individual was reared or existed.
Our Nature part, our behaviors, our inborn instincts, which we believe must be genetic, is “what we’re all about”. The Nurture part, begs the question of how our surroundings has shaped us over time. Some scientists fall into the camp of “nature is what makes us what we are”. We are genetically related to our biological parents and siblings, therefore, we should be mini-mes of our family; we should all act and think the same way – or close to it. Some scientists fall into the other camp that it’s the “nurturing that makes us who we are”.
Color of eyes, straight or curly hair, pigmentation of the skin and certain diseases are all a function of the genes we inherit. Other physical characteristics, if not determined, appear to be at least strongly influenced by the genetic make-up of our biological parents. Those who adopt an extreme heredity position are known as nativists. Their basic assumption is that the characteristics of the human species as a whole are a product of evolution, and that individual differences are due to each person’s unique genetic code. Characteristics and differences that are not observable at birth, but which emerge later in life, are regarded as the product of maturation.
Nurture refers to an individual’s childhood or in what way an individual was brought up and how an individual reacts to life. (Nurture, 2004). Genetic syndromes, the color of eye, hair, and skin are a few examples of nature. Further, things like an individual’s height and life span have a strong biological influence, but environmental influences and lifestyle may have an impact on them. Studies related to twins show that almost half of behavioral traits found in completely developed siblings are heritable; the remaining is caused by environmental factors: the nurture.
Epigenetics, which literally translates to “above the gene”, is a recent study of heritable changes in gene expression. It is the theory that our actions affect not only our own gene expression but also the gene expression in our children and grandchildren. The theory itself is almost Lamarckian. However, there are a several distinct differences. Lamarck said the inherited change was directly related to the parents stress, atrophy, etc., i.e.
Traits like hair or eye color are known to be genetically linked, but behaviors, preferences and abilities are researched to see whether genetics or environment play a bigger role. One research method that is particularly useful in the nature/nurture debate is the twin study. Multiple twin research studies exist worldwide to look at these questions. Twin studies are a beneficial tool to use in this type of research because monozygotic (identical) twins share 100% the same genes, and fraternal, or dizygotic twins share half their genes, therefore they can be used to help determine if traits are hereditary or not. Identical twins who are raised together have more similar traits than
M1: Discuss the nature-nurture debate in relation to the development of an individual. The nature versus nurture debate is over whether children develop their physical and psychological attributes based on genetics, which is nature, or on how they were raised, also known nurture. This argument can be traced back to a few millenniums ago or at least as far back as a person can wonder. Plato and John Locke where both philosophers with different views on the issue, Plato believed that knowledge and behaviour where due to innate factors and that their environmental variables still had a place in the equation (nature), John Locke believed differently though he backed up the idea of tabula rasa, which means blank slate, people that sustain this theory are known as empiricist thinkers. John Locke idea proposes the thought that everyone is born basically mindless and you gain your own behaviour and knowledge from your experiences, a good example of this is the issue of Feral Children.
Francis Fukuyama wrote on this subject in his essay Genetic Engineering. Fukuyama believes that this biotechnology must be tightly regulated for the sake of our common humanity. Many other experts agree with him. As quoted from Designer Babies by Tania Unsworth: Want a perfect child? Some geneticists believe the day may not be far away when we can choose every detail... male or female, gay or straight.