Late 20th century studies on the nature versus nature debate seemed to suggest that it is both. Historically, though, some people believed that innate nature played a significant role in development. People were born to be poor, athletic, or any number of other things, and nothing could change this eventual fate. Other people believed that the way in which someone was raised was the critical factor, and that people raised to be politicians, for example, would become politicians. People who believed that nurture was the primary influence were sometimes referred to as proponents of the “tabula rasa” or “blank slate,” referencing the idea that they thought everyone had the same potential at birth.
Nature vs. Nurture From the mid to late 1800s to the early 1900s nature was the zeitgeist: This was the era of Mendel and Darwinism. Francis Galton argued that intelligence, or lack of, ran in families. He introduced “eugenics”, which will be spoken about by Denise, to speed up the process of natural selection. 1920s – 1930s Intelligence tests were re-analyzed and validity questioned. There was a great deal of backlash regarding the social consequences of eugenics.
Galton influenced his successors and was influenced by many of his predecessors, namely his half-cousin, Charles Darwin and Darwin’s work entitled The Origin of Species. Galton drew from what others had established and extended those findings. He desired to improve the human race with his findings in eugenics but lacked some crucial pieces to the puzzle he developed. He asked all the “right” questions but drew the wrong conclusions. Although the modern day public may dismiss some of his ideas as backward or non-progressive, Galton was a genius among men; Galton published many works that introduced the scientific world to never-before conceived ideas and concepts.
Do humans enter the world with basic human function, or do they develop these functions as a result of those around them? Are we inclines to be more intelligent, artistic and social because our parents are? Many sociologists, biologists, and scientists have examined these questions and many more concerning what it actually is that forms our talents, habits and personalities resulting in the “nature vs. nurture” debate. The “Nature vs. Nurture” Debate Sir Francis Galton is the 18th century English anthropologist who coined the phrase “Nature vs. Nurture”. His book, Hereditary Genius was the first social scientific attempt to study intelligence and prominence.
Fraternal twins, or dizygotic twins, from two eggs fertilized by two sperm, and they share 50% genetic of information. Identical twins are good subjects to use in research of nature versus nurture as they have the same genetic makeup. Description of Studies Naukkarinen, Rissanen, Kaprio, and Pietilainen completed a study in 2012 of twins based on the Finnish Twin cohorts. It was based on findings of more than 10 years of research using identical twins. A large cohort of adult twins was established in 1974, and was extended to two birth cohorts in the 1990s (FinnTwin12 and Finntwin16
The article indicates the inconsistency with an “all or nothing” view and instead reminds us to interpret it on a more “how much?” basis. I strongly believe that both nature and nurture play an important role in our upbringing and well into our adult lives. There are arguments throughout this article and many others that state intellectual ability is solely an inherited trait. While I beg to differ the concept of Galton when he suggested that human society would be improved by “better breeding,” I can understand the viewpoint. I can more easily relate to the reasoning that the differences in intellectual ability are a product of social inequalities.
The main reason Barry Bogin wrote the article was because he wanted to settle the nature versus nurture debate. Scientists have often made it out to seem as if it was one or the other failing to understand that in reality they deeply coincide, for it is not nature versus nurture but rather nature and nurture. He writes about the human species and our bodies amazing ability to adjust in accordance to our surroundings; a term he has coined as “Plasticity.” Bogin refers to his research studies done to further explain to his audience that our biology is not set in stone. The abilities humans have from the day they are born are not always present throughout the entirety of their lives, much like the abilities they develop over the course of their lives are not present at the time of birth. For instance, he argues that all humans are given lactase, an enzyme that helps break down the sugar molecules from our mother’s milk yet we have lactose intolerant people today.
One of the most common questions asked is do genes actually control our behaviour? Case studies and evidence show that in certain cases it is believed that genes can do such a thing. Cases such as ‘Twin Studies.’ It is believed that 40-50% of twins were found to have a generic gene, which helps with the way each twin, has the same personality trait, such as liking the same colour or having the same fashion sense. This can also lead to the twins having the same mannerisms, which is often similar in most twin studies. The twin studies are a popular debate, which challenges the thought of nurturing rather than nature.
“Genes and gender roles: Why is the nature argument so appealing?”, written by P.Y. Choi in 2001, argues the dominance of the nature role in development by examining a past chromosomal study on a Turner’s Syndrome patient. J.C. Lohlin concedes environmental factors are more dominant in “Behavior genetics and parenting theory,” written in 2001, emphasizing one’s upbringing as most influential. Finally, the article “The Case for Nature and Nurture,” points out validity in both arguments for nature and nurture, written by W.A. Collins, E.E.
There are many studies that have been conducted throughout the years to find conclusions to the nature versus nurture controversy. Twin Studies Twin studies are most likely the best indicator of whether genes or environment affect traits in human being. Therefore, identical twins, or monozygotic twins (DZ) and fraternal twins, or dizygotic twins (DZ), are a fascination subject of study. In addition, adoption studies or reared apart are essential because they consist of two sets of factors that may explain