The hypothesis has been used both in first and second language attainment and particularly in the latter it has often been used to explain the shortcomings of older adult learners who do not readily display nativelike achievement when compared to younger learners. According to CPH the propensity of achieving native like language ultimately rests with the age of the learner. Diminishment in second language acquisition within this theory stems from neurophysiologic factors. Those who reject this theory can fall into three categories. Firstly some researchers posit that children learn quicker than adults but not due to physical factors.
This research serves to prove that a person’s intelligence which includes reading does make an impact on the aging brain which allows delay in dementia even though the second language was studied only after the age of 65 years old. However, the article also stated that to learn 2 languages is not easy. According to Reyes (2008), balanced bilingualism is a concept that is not easily achievable; instead, bilingualism must be understood as a continuum in which language ability changes constantly in relation to the individual’s social, educational, and linguistic contexts. Despite being said that Singapore has top performers, there are also children who are stress and some even require mental health programmes. There was an increase of 306 students in 2007 to 8,336 students in 2008 who seeks assistance from Institute of Mental Health Singapore (Singapore Democrats, 2014).
However, language sometimes will “fight against” each other just like Japanese and English. It’s never easy for an average native Japanese speaker to utter English words without carrying Japanese accent. However, the inborn knowledge like first language acquisition is not the only factors to affect one’s learning conditions of other languages. Sometimes, it also has something to do with the things and people around language learners. If people keep themselves exposed to a kind of language input for a long time, it may become easy for them to break the “natural boundary” of first language and learn the target language well.
What strategies can teachers use to accommodate for students with English as their second language? This paper will look into finding answers for these big questions. Glass and Selinker (2001, p. 1) describe the study of second language acquisition as “the study of how languages are learned”. Dictionary.com defines bilingualism as “the ability to speak two languages fluently”. The Issue There seems to be many advantages to learning a second language, however these advantages are normally mentioned in situations where children grow up, immersed in bilingual households from an early age.
To collect their data Hodges and Tizard used various self-report measures, interviews, and assessment scales, with the participants themselves (adolescents) and their parents and teachers. The participants in the study were all aged 16 and had all been in institutional care until at least two years of age. At this age most of the children had either been adopted or restored to biological parents. The study focused on 31 ex-institutional children. A comparison group was also studied.
I think the aim of literacy is to teach children/young people the ability to understand the English language both verbally and non-verbally. Children/young people should be encouraged to explore the way the English language works for example through phonics for vocabulary, reading, writing and spelling, this will help children and young people to have the knowledge to be able to read, write and spell with confidence. Children and young people will be able to expand their vocabulary through holding literacy skills. Being a secondary school the school has an English department that teaches literacy to student from year 7 (key stage 3) through to year 13 (A level), students have 3 hours of English a week up to the end of their GSCS’s, A level English students would have 5 hours a week. We also have core studies, which are run by HLTA in the learning support department.
All children can benefit cognitively,linguistically, and culturally, from learning more than one language. There are significant differences among children who are becoming fluent in English that will influence how they learn English. These include the language spoken at home, the socioeconomic circumstances of the family, the age of the child and extent of exposure to English, fluency in the home language, circumstances surrounding the family’s immigration to the target language, and the particular values and customs of the family. Common sense suggests that the more time children spend listening to and speaking English, the faster they will master the fundamentals of the English language. For adults and older children who
A person would acquire a second language by learning it, just like learning the first language. English is the second language of most of the world’s countries. A lot of people would choose to learn English in a country where it’s their first language, such as US and England. In US for example students are faced with a problem, native or non-native English-speaking teacher. Non-native English-speaking teachers (NNEST) have a lot of advantages over native English-peaking teachers (NEST).
In high school, I opted for Elective English as another subject where I was able to improve my pronunciation and syllable stress and read more and appreciate english literature more. This paper further improved my vocabulary and use of the English dictionary. For the first time I was introduced to audio/visual aids to understand a play or a book. As English was my favourite subject during my school days after finishing my higher secondary, I applied for my B.A. Hons.