| | | A) | endoplastic reticulum | | | B) | microtubules | | | C) | cytoplasm | | | D) | mitochondria | | | | | | Feedback: The cell's chemical processes take place in a semifluid material called the cytoplasm. This material provides an ideal environment for organelles because of its fluidity. | | 7 CORRECT | | This shows an example of endoplasmic reticulum. What is the significance of its structure? | | | A) | provides a location for DNA production | | | B) | helps decrease surface area | | | C) | allows selective permeability of cell membrane | | | D) | facilitates breakdown of chemical bonds | | | | | | Feedback: The pleats and folds of the endoplasmic reticulum provides a large surface area where cellular functions, such as breaking chemical bonds, can take place.
Rough ER transports these proteins to the regions in the cell where it is needed. | Ribosomes | A ribosome is composed of two parts known as the large and small subunits. Each of these is a combination of protein and a type of RNA known as rRNA. | the main thing they do is that they arrange the strands of the amino acids for use of the other parts of the cell and ultimately the body. | Goigi Apparatus | The main function of the Golgi apparatus is to be responsible for handling the macromolecules that are required for proper cell functioning | It packages and ships molecules made in the ER.
Some cells have more energy that others, your fat cells have lots more mitochondria because they store a lot of energy. Muscle cells have many mitochondria which allows them to respond quickly when needed. All living cells contain ribosomes, tiny organelles composed of 60% ribosomal RNA and 40% protein. ‘Ribosomes are mainly found bound to the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope as well as freely scattered throughout the cytoplasm’ Davidson, Jan,2005. The ribosomes serve as the protein production for the cell, and are
Mitochondria Mitochondria Nucleus Nucleus Lysosome Lysosome Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus Cell membrane Cell membrane Endoplasmic reticulum (Smooth and rough) Endoplasmic reticulum (Smooth and rough) Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Cell Membrane A cell membrane of the cell. It gives the cell its shape, it is the outer covering of the cell made up from phospho-lipid-protein bi-layer, which allows the materials to enter and to exit. The cell membrane is not one solid piece. It is made of different pieces. Compounds called proteins and phospholipids make up most of the cell membrane.
Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s disease is associated with a buildup of proteins in the brain causing plaques & tangles. The buildup of these is common during the natural aging process. However, post mortem investigations have discovered an unusually large amount in people presenting with Alzheimer’s type symptoms. Vascular Dementia Vascular Dementia is caused by a reduced flow of blood to the brain. This can occur following a stroke or a series of TIA’s which can then result in stopping the blood accessing the blood vessels.
The breakdown of the membranes of these structures, affect the function of his heart cells because lysosomal enzymes which are normally bound safely inside vesicles will digest the plasma membranes and the membranes of the organelles. D.) Predisposition means that Joseph inherited vascular disease. Dna is in the nucleus of the cell. We need DNA to replicate or repair our cells. Also, cytosol is the site of chemical reactions needed to maintain cell structures and allow cell growth.
Various chemotactic agents make the endothelium sticky for white blood cells, including neutrophils which recognize antigens via toll receptors and phagocytize the antigens and empty lysosome enzymes into the phagosome. They also release cytokines and chemokines leading to the recruitment of macrophages and dendritic cells. These cells also phagocytize the antigen, but after digestion, they present the fragments of antigen polypeptide on MHC class II molecules on the surface. The APCs move through the lymph to the lymph nodes to present the antigen to T cells. Both the presented antigen and the MHC II receptor it is presented on has to be specific for the T cell which has a CD4 binding site for the
These proinﬂammatory monocytes home to atherosclerotic lesions, where they propagate the innate immune response by expressing high levels of proinﬂammatory cytokines and other macrophage mediators, including matrix metalloproteinases (Fig. 1, left). Recent evidence has also highlighted the potential participation of mast cells in atherosclerosis. Long identiﬁed as a minority leukocyte population in the arterial adventitia and atherosclerotic intima, mast cells exhibit numerous functions implicated in atherogenesis (14,15). For example, mast cells release vasoactive small molecules such as histamine and leukotrienes, certain serine proteinases, and heparin, a cofactor in growth factor action and angiogenesis.
E.g. of antibiotic Penicillin G Damage the cell membrane: causes the cell to take up too much water and lyse by increasing the permeability of the cell membrane. E.g. of antibiotic is Polymyxin B Interfere with protein synthesis: prevents the productions of protein in the invading bacterial cells. E.g.
1. Outline the most important functions of the cells. Cells have a number of important functions & these are as follows: They carry out growth & repair, the cell absorbs nourishment, it is capable of reproduction by dividing, it carries out excretion of waste products. Some specialist cells also have the power of movement. Cells are also capable of communication (hormones from endocrine gland cells & neurotransmitters from nerve cells binding to receptors) & defence (proteins – antibodies, bind to harmful substances – antigens & carry out actions to make them harmless.